Sunday, June 7, 2015


ist of polyglots

  • Edit
  • Watch this page
polyglot is a person who uses multiple languages. A polyglot may also be called a multilingual person; the label "multilingual" is used for communities as well as individual speakers.
Richard Hudson, professor emeritus of linguistics at University College London, coined the term "hyperpolyglot" for a person who can speak six or more languages fluently.[1][2] Other scholars apply the label to speakers of even more languages – twelve, sixteen, or in the most extreme cases even fifty or more.[3]
It is difficult to judge which individuals are polyglots, as there is no uncontroversial definition for what it means to "master" a language, and because it is not always clear where to distinguish a dialect from a language.
This list consists of people who have been noted in news media, historical texts, or academic work as speaking six or more languages fluently. For general discussion of the phenomenon, including discussion of polyglot savants, seepolyglotism.

Notable living polyglotsEdit

The 2012 book Babel No More[4] by Michael Erard highlights some polyglots around the globe, including Alexander Argüelles. Canada's Global TV also brought out a piece on hyperpolyglots on their 16x9 show, entitled "Word Play",[5]featuring Canadian polyglots Axel Van Hout, Alexandre Coutu, Steve Kaufmann, James Chang and Keith Swayne. Tim Doner (US) and Richard Simcott (UK) also appear in the programme to describe their experiences speaking multiple languages.


  • Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson, a Ghanaian cardinal of the Catholic Church is able to speak English, Fante, French, Italian, German, and Hebrew, in addition to understanding Latin and Greek.[6]
  • Dikembe Mutombo, a former NBA player, is able to speak English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Tshiluba, Swahili, Lingala, and two other central African languages.[7]

The AmericasEdit

  • Alexander Argüelles, an American linguist. He speaks perhaps a dozen languages and has a reading knowledge of many more. He was profiled in Michael Erard's Babel No More.[8]
  • Timothy Doner, then a sixteen-year-old New York student, was featured in the New York Times for his ability to speak over twenty languages to various levels, including English, French, Hausa, Wolof, Russian, German, Yiddish, Hebrew, Arabic, Pashto, Persian, Mandarin, Italian, Turkish, Indonesian, Dutch, Xhosa, Swahili, Hindi and Ojibwe.[9] In June 2012, Doner published a 15-minute video of himself speaking twenty languages on his YouTube channel "PolyglotPal".[10]
  • Dr. Carlos do Amaral Freire, a Brazilian scholar, linguist, and translator who has publicly stated that he has studied over 100 languages,[11] is considered one of the greatest scholars of the 21st century by the University of Cambridge. He has translated sixty languages into Portuguese and is engaged in a project that is more than forty years old to study two new languages every year.[12]


  • Swami Rambhadracharya, a Hindu religious leader and Sanskrit scholar based in ChitrakootIndia, can speak twenty-two languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, English, French, BhojpuriMaithiliOriyaGujaratiPunjabiMarathi,MagadhiAwadhi, and Braj. Rambhadracharya has been blind since the age of two months and received no formal education until the age of seventeen. He has never used braille, or any other aid, to learn or compose his works and has authored more than 100 books.[13][14][15]
  • George Fernandes, an Indian politician who is well-versed in ten languages: Konkani, English, Hindi, Tulu, Kannada, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Malayalam and Latin. As of April 2013, Fernandes is suffering from Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.[16]
  • Ali Manikfan, is an Indian marine researcher, ecologist, shipbuilder, and a polyglot.[17][18] Besides his mother tongueDivehi (Mahl), he learned English, Hindi and Malayalam, Arabic, Latin, French, Russian, German, Sinhalese, Persian, Sanskrit, Tamil and Urdu. His other areas of interest are marine biology, marine research, geography, astronomy, social science, traditional shipbuilding, education, fisheries, agriculture and horticulture.



  • Ziad Fazah, known for his claim of being able to speak, read, and understand 59 languages.

Notable deceased reputed polyglotsEdit

The following list consists of deceased individuals who are associated with claims of polyglotism, by year of birth.
  • Mithridates VI of Pontus (134–63 BC) could supposedly speak the languages of all 22 nations within his kingdom.[30]
  • Cleopatra VII (69–30 BC), the last ruling Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, could, according to the Roman biographerPlutarch, speak nine languages and was the only member of her dynasty who could speak Egyptian as well as her native Greek.[31]
  • al-Farabi (872-950/951), a Persian polymath who mastered over 70 languages.[32]
  • Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera (1408 - 1491)[33] was a Buddhist monk and an eminent scholar,[34] who lived in the 15th century in Sri Lanka.[35] He was a multi-linguist who was given the title "Shad Bhasha Parameshwara" due to his mastery in six oriental languages which prevailed in the Indian subcontinent.[36]
  • Athanasius Kircher (1601?–1680), German Jesuit polymath and scholar. Claimed knowledge of 12 languages; among them: LatinGreekHebrewAramaicSyriacCoptic, as well as several modern languages. He also pioneered the study of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics and Classical Chinese characters.[citation needed]
  • John Milton (1608–1674), an English poet who is famous for the epic work Paradise Lost, could speak English, Latin, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Spanish, Aramaic, Syriac, and Old English. Milton coined 630 terms in the English language.[37]
  • Adam František Kollár (1718–1783), a Slovak writer, spoke Slovak, Czech, Serbian, Polish, Rusin, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, German, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Turkish, Chinese, Persian, Arabic, Italian, Romanian, French, Dutch, and English.[38]
  • Noah Webster (1758–1843), a lexicographerEnglish spelling reformer, and author, mastered 23 languages.[citation needed]
  • Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti (1774–1849), an Italian Cardinal, spoke the following 39 languages fluently:[39] Biblical Hebrew, Rabbinical Hebrew, Arabic, Coptic, Ancient Armenian, Modern Armenian, Persian, Turkish, Albanian, Maltese, Ancient Greek, Modern Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Swedish, Danish, Dutch, English, Illyrian, Russian, Polish, Czech, Hungarian, Chinese, Syriac, Ge'ez, Hindustani, Amharic, Gujarati, Basque, Romanian, and Algonquin.
  • Jean-François Champollion (1790–1832), a French classical scholar, philologist, and orientalist, was the first to decipher the inscription on the Rosetta Stone, an achievement that facilitated the translation of the Egyptian Hieroglyphs—the titles "Father of Egyptology"[40] and "the founder of scientific Egyptology" have since been bestowed upon Champollion.[41] He specialized in Oriental languages while he was a student at the College de France between 1807 and 1809, and his linguistic repertoire eventually consisted of LatinGreek, Sanskrit, Pahlavi, Arabic, Persian, Coptic, Ethiopic, Zend, and his native French.[40][41][42]
  • Friedrich Engels (1820–1895), a German-English industrialist, social scientist, and cofounder of Marxist theoryalongside Karl Marx, mastered over 20 languages.[43]
  • James Augustus Henry Murray (1837–1915), was a Scottish lexicographer, instrumental in the creation of the Oxford English Dictionary, and its primary editor from 1879 until his death. In an application letter written to the British Museum Library in November 1866, he claimed abilities in Italian, French, Catalan, Spanish, and Latin, and "in a less degree" Portuguese, Provençal, Dutch, German, Flemish, and Danish. The letter also referred to Murray's study of Celtic, Russian, Persian, Hebrew, and Syriac, among other languages and dialects.[44]
  • Yaqub Sanu (1839-1912), Egyptian journalist.
  • Arthur Rimbaud (1854–1891) French Symbolist poet. After retiring from writing he went on ambitious language learning program while traveling around Europe and the Middle East; mastering Latin, Ancient and Modern Greek, English, German, Spanish, Italian, Russian, Dutch, Arabic, Hindi, Amharic,[45] as well as developing a working knowledge of several native African languages while living in Ethiopia.[46]
  • Chiragh Ali (1844–1895), an Islamic scholar who, apart from his native Urdu, mastered PersianArabicEnglish,FrenchHebrewAramaicLatin and Greek.[47]
  • Nikola Tesla (1856–1943), Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. Read and memorized many entire books, and was capable of speaking eight languages: Serbo-Croatian, Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin.[48]
  • Ludwig Zamenhof (1859–1917), creator of the constructed language Esperanto, spoke 11 languages besides his own: AramaicEnglishFrenchGermanGreekHebrewLatinPolish, his native RussianVolapük, and Yiddish. He also had an interest in ArabicItalian, and Lithuanian, though he never claimed fluency in those.[citation needed]
  • José Rizal (1861–1896), was a Filipino nationalist, writer and revolutionary. He was able to speak 22 languages including Spanish, French, Latin, Greek, German, Portuguese, Italian, English, Dutch, and Japanese. Rizal also made translations from Arabic, Swedish, Russian, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew and Sanskrit. He translated the poetry of Schiller into his native Tagalog. In addition he had at least some knowledge of Malay, Chavacano, Cebuano, Ilocano, and Subanun.[49][50][51][52]
  • Rıza Tevfik Bölükbaşı (1869–1949), a Turkish philosopher and politician, who "...was proficient in eight languages, including ArabicEnglishFrenchGermanItalianLatinPersian, and Spanish"[53] in addition to HebrewAlbanianand Armenian.[54]
  • Sri Aurobindo (1872–1950), an Indian philosopher who, apart from his native Bengali and educational English, knewancient GreekLatinFrenchGermanItalianSpanish and other Indian languages like SanskritHindiMarathi andGujarati.[55]
  • Harold Williams (1876–1928), a New Zealand journalist and linguist, spoke more than 58 languages.[56]
  • Hrachia Adjarian (1876-1953), Armenian linguist. He spoke Armenian, Greek, Hebrew, French, English, German, Italian, Persian, Latin, Sanskrit, and Laz.[57]
  • Martin Buber (1878–1965), German philosopher, who "spoke German, Hebrew, Yiddish, Polish, English, French and Italian and read, in addition to these, Spanish, Latin, Greek, Dutch and other languages".[58]
  • Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969), the Vietnamese Communist leader, became fluent in French, English, Russian, Cantonese, and Mandarin, in addition to his native Vietnamese, through study and many years spent in exile.[59]
  • Harinath De (1877–1911) could speak 34 languages including many eastern and western languages such as Chinese, Tibetan, Pali, Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, English, Greek, Latin, out of which he was M.A in 14.
  • Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan (1893–1963) could speak 36 languages and wrote in more than 6.[60]
  • William James Sidis (1898–1944), an American child prodigy who knew nine languages (LatinGreekGerman,FrenchRussianHebrewTurkish and Armenian) when eight-years old and claimed to speak about forty languages shortly before his death. He also created his own artificial language, which was called Vendergood. Although Sidis was supposed to have an IQ between 250 and 300 measured through psychological analyisis, this was never confirmed.[citation needed]
  • Sukarno (1901–1970), the first President of Indonesia, was able to speak JavaneseSundaneseBalinese,Indonesian, Dutch, German, English, French, Arabic, and Japanese.[61]
  • John von Neumann (1903–1957), mathematician. While better known for his work in mathematics, Von Neumann was a polyglot; fluent in FrenchGermanLatinGreekEnglishYiddish, as well as his native Hungarian[citation needed]
  • S. Srikanta Sastri (1904–1974), eminent Indian Historian, Indologist, and epigraphist at the University of Mysore, was fluent in over fourteen languages, including Greek, Latin, Hittite, Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit.[62][63]
  • Nathan Leopold Jr. (1904–1971) was born to a wealthy Jewish family. He spoke his first words at 4 months. He reportedly had an intelligence quotient of 210, and claimed to have been able to speak 27 languages by the time he was 19.[64] More likely he was only fluent in 9 or 10 languages.[65] He was involved in the murder of Robert "Bobby" Franks with friend Richard Loeb. He served in prison for 33 years before receiving parole.
  • João Guimarães Rosa (1908–1967) was a Brazilian writer, considered by many to be one of the greatest Brazilian novelists born in the 20th century, and a self-taught polyglot. In a letter he claimed to speak PortugueseGerman, French, English, Spanish, Italian, Esperanto, and some Russian. He also claimed to read SwedishDutch, Latin andGreek, but with the use of a dictionary. He also professed some understanding of German dialects, and study ofHungarian, Arabic, Sanskrit, LithuanianPolishTupiHebrew, Japanese, CzechFinnish, and Danish grammar. Guimarães Rosa suggested that studying other languages helped him understand the national language of Brazil more deeply, but that he studied primarily for pleasure.[66]
  • Muhammad Hamidullah (1908–2002), an Islamic scholar, knew 22 languages and learned Thai at 85.
  • Uku Masing (1909–1985), an Estonian linguist, theologian, ethnologist, and poet, claimed to know approximately 65 languages and could translate 20 languages.[67]
  • Kató Lomb (1909–2003), a Hungarian interpreter, translator, and one of the first simultaneous interpreters in the world, was able to interpret fluently in 10 languages.[68]
  • George Campbell (1912–2004), a Scottish polyglot and a linguist at the BBC, who could speak and write fluently in at least 44 languages and had a working knowledge of perhaps 20 others.[69]
  • Meredith Gardner (1912–2002), an American linguist and codebreaker. German, Old High German, Middle High German, Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, Lithuanian, Spanish, French, Italian, Russian, and Japanese.[70]
  • Enoch Powell (1912–1998), an English politician, classical scholar, linguist, and poet. English, French, German, Italian, Urdu, Modern Greek, Classical Greek, Latin, Welsh, Russian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Hebrew.[71]
  • Ahmad Hasan Dani (1920–2009), a Pakistani intellectual, archaeologist, historian, and linguist, who mastered 35 languages.
  • Michael Ventris (1922–1956), an English linguist and architect. French, German, Swiss German, Polish, Russian, Swedish, Danish, Italian, Spanish, some Turkish, and Modern Greek.[72]
  • P. B. Sreenivas (1930–2013), an Indian singer and poet, spoke and wrote in eight languages, including Kannada, English and Urdu.[73]
  • Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou (1930–1989), a Kurdish political activist and economist, mastered eight languages that included his mother tongue.[74][75][76]
  • Kenneth L. Hale (1934–2001) was an American professor of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He spoke over 50 languages, including Basque, Dutch, French, HopiIrish GaelicJapaneseJemezLardilNavajo,O'odham, Polish, Spanish, Warlpiri, and Wômpanâak.[77][78]


  1. Hudson, Richard (2008). "Word grammar, cognitive linguistics, and second language learning and teaching". In P. Robinson and N. Ellis. Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition. Routledge. pp. 89–113.
  2. Erard, Michael (June 2012). "The Polyglot of Bologna". Public Domain Review. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  3. Erard, Michael (November 3, 2005). "How many languages is it possible for a person to speak?". The Five Minute Linguist. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  4. "Babel No More" Jamie-Lee Nardone at Duckworth Publishers. 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  5. 16x9onglobal (7 May 2012). "Word Play" (VIDEO UPLOAD)YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  6. Sam Jones; Afua Hirsch (11 February 2013). "Who will be the next pope? The contenders for Vatican's top job".The Guardian (London). Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  7. "Dikembe Mutombo" NBA Media Ventures, LLC. 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  8. Erard, Michael (2012). Babel No More: The Search for the World's Most Extraordinary Language Learners. New York: Free Press.
  9. John Leland (9 March 2012). "Adventures of a Teenage Polyglot"The New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  10. PolyglotPal (June 2012). "American Polyglot Practicing 20 Languages" (VIDEO UPLOAD)YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  11. Confusionoftongues (14 March 2008). "Poliglota – Carlos Freire" (VIDEO UPLOAD)YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  12. Ryan (29 June 2008). "Interview with the Greatest Linguist Since Mezzofanti"The Linguist Blogger. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  13. "वाचस्पति पुरस्कार २००७" [Vachaspati Award 2007] (PDF) (in Hindi). K. K. Birla Foundation. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  14. Dinkar, Dr. Vagish (2008). श्रीभार्गवराघवीयम् मीमांसा [Investigation into Śrībhārgavarāghavīyam] (in Hindi). Delhi, India: Deshbharti Prakashan. p. 39. ISBN 978-81-908276-6-9.
  15. Aneja, Mukta (2005). "Shri Ram Bhadracharyaji – A Religious Head With A Vision". In Kaul, J. K.; Abraham, George.Abilities Redefined – Forty Life Stories Of Courage And Accomplishment (PDF). Delhi, India: All India Confederation of the Blind. pp. 66–68. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
  16. "George Fernandes: Rebel without a pause" 27 April 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  17. Xavier Romero-Frias"Ali Manikfan - the man from Minicoy who loves nature". Maldives Culture website.
  18. Islam online
  19. (Dutch) Timmermans: si, je spreche multiple talen (features a short video of Timmermans speaking five languages),, 7 October 2014
  20. (Dutch) Arme Frans,, 25 January 2012
  21. Bishop, John (2010). "Bruins by the Numbers: 33". BostonBruins.Com. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
  22. Onze Nederlandse vriend A. den Doolaard, Ohrid, 2013
  23. Ghazanchyan, Siranush (27 February 2013). "Henrikh Mkhitaryan: A classy player, an outstanding personality, a well-educated polyglot…"Public Radio of Armenia.
  24. Hughes, Rob (27 November 2013). "Mkhitaryan Is Not the Leading Scorer, but He’s Leading the Way"The New York Times.
  25. Hakobyan, Tatul (27 March 2009). "Armenia is a homeland for the Assyrians, who have no homeland". The Armenian ReporterTogether with other languages, Levon Ter-Petrossian, the first president of Armenia, also knew Assyrian.
  26. Լևոն Տեր-Պետրոսյան (in Armenian). Տիրապետում է հայերեն, ռուսերեն, ֆրանսերեն, անգլերեն, գերմաներեն, արաբերեն, ինչպես նաև մի քանի «մեռած» լեզուների։ Հեղինակ է ավելի քան 70 գիտական աշխատությունների, որոնք հրապարակվել են հայերեն, ռուսերեն, ֆրանսերեն լեզուներով
  27. TEDxTalks (15 May 2013). "Hacking Language Learning: Benny Lewis at TEDxWarsaw" (VIDEO UPLOAD).YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  28. sgendreau (12 September 2013). "Traveling the World for 10 Years: An Interview with Polyglot Benny Lewis".lingholic. Samuel Gendreau. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  29. Benny Lewis (11 March 2014). Fluent in 3 Months: How Anyone at Any Age Can Learn to Speak Any Language from Anywhere in the World. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-00-755675-5.
  30. "Mithridates, who was king of twenty-two nations, administered their laws in as many languages, and could harangue each of them, without employing an interpreter:" Pliny the Elder, Natural History, VII, 24.
  31. "she could pass from one language to another; so that there were few of the barbarian nations that she answered by an interpreter; to most of them she spoke herself, as to the Ethiopians, Troglodytes, Hebrews, Arabians, Syrians, Medes, Parthians, and many others, whose language she had learnt; which was all the more surprising because most of the kings, her predecessors, scarcely gave themselves the trouble to acquire the Egyptian tongue, and several of them quite abandoned the Macedonian." Plutarch, Antony, 27.3-4
  32. Rom LandauIslam and the ArabsRoutledge (2013), p. 147
  33. Royal Asiatic Society, Sri Lanka (2004). "Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka". 47-48.
  34. Zhao, Yong (2011). Handbook of Asian Education: A Cultural PerspectiveRoutledge. p. 399.
  35. Himbutana, Gopitha Peiris (January 29, 2006). "Ven. Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera Scholar monk par excellence" (PDF). Lake House. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  36. Disanayaka, Professor. J. B. (20 February 2000). "A taste of Sinhala : What apabbransa are you jabbering?". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  37. John Crace (28 January 2008). "John Milton – our greatest word-maker"The Guardian (London). Retrieved15 April 2013.
  38. Kopčan Vojtech:Adam František Kollár ako orientalista. In: Literárnomuzejný letopis č. 16, Martin, Matica slovenská, 1985, s. 171–178
  39. C. W. Russel, D.D., 1863, Longman & Green, London
  40. Jimmy Dunn writing as John Warren (1996–2013). "Jean Francois Champollion: The Father of Egyptology"Tour Egypt. Tour Egypt. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  41. "Jean Francois Champollion and the Rosetta Stone"Translator Interpreter Hall of Fame. Translator Interpreter Hall of Fame. 2000–2003. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  42. E Bruce Brooks (2001). "Gallery of Philologists Jean-François Champollion 23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832".University of Massachusetts Amherst. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  43. Paul Lafargue; Jacques Bonhomme (15 August 1905). "Frederick Engels"Marxists Internet Archive (from The Social Democrat journal). Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  44. Winchester, Simon (2003). The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press.
  45. Nicholas, Jean (2010). Complete Works, selected letters. Chicago: University of Chicago.
  46. Robb, Graham (2001). Rimbaud: A Biography. United States of America: W.W. Norton.
  47. Sohail H. Hashmi in Just Wars, Holy Wars, and Jihads: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Encounters and Exchanges,Oxford University Press (2012), p. 307
  48. John J. O'Neill (May 2009). Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla. pp. 282–284. ISBN 978-1-4421-7396-5.
  49. Andrei Medina (19 June 2012). "Jose Rizal a revered hero abroad, not just PHL"GMA News. Retrieved 22 April2013.
  50. Zaide, Gregorio (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings. Manila, Philippines: All Nations Publishing Co., Inc.
  51. "Rizal and Language". Retrieved 2013-11-18.
  52.[dead link]
  53. Metin Heper & Nur Bilge Criss, Historical Dictionary of Turkey, Scarecrow Press (2009), p. 43
  54. Hakan Ozoglu, From Caliphate to Secular State, ABC-CLIO (2011), p. 48
  55. Peter HeehsThe Lives of Sri Aurobindo: A BiographyColumbia University Press (2013), p. 43
  56. "Harold Williams VOICE OF THE WORLD"The New Zealand Edge. NZEDGE.COM IP HOLDINGS LIMITED. 1998–2011. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  57. Աճառյան Հրաչյա (in Armenian). Armenian Encyclopedia.
  58. Maurice Friedman, Martin Buber's Life and WorkWayne State University Press (1988), p. 8
  59. Duiker, William J. (2000). Ho Chi Minh: A Life. Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-8701-9.
  60. Sharma, R.S. (2009). Rethinking India's PastOxford University PressISBN 978-0-19-569787-2.
  61. Ludwig M., Arnold (2004). King of the Mountain: The Nature of Political Leadership. University Press of Kentucky.p. 150.
  62. Sastri, S. Srikanta. "Official Website of Dr S. Srikanta Sastri"Biographical Sketch of S. Srikanta Sastri. Website Administrator. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  63. Rahman, M.M. (2005). Encyclopedia of historiography. New Delhi, India: Anmol Publications. p. 2056.ISBN 8126123052.
  66. "Germina – Revista De Literatura & Arte". Retrieved 2013-11-18.
  67. "UKU MASING – Writer, theologian, philologist"Välisministeerium – Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Välisministeerium. 26 August 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  68. Scott Alkire. "Insights of a Master Language Learner". Retrieved 10 May 2013.
  69. George Campbell Dies; Spoke 44 Languages (The Washington Post)
  70. Meredith K. Gardner, 89; Cracked Codes to Unmask Key Soviet Spies
  71. Heffer, Simon (1998). Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  72. A Very English Genius, BBC documentary.
  73. MURALIDHARA KHAJANE (15 April 2013). "P.B. Sreenivas was the voice of Rajkumar"The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  74. Carol Prunhuber (2010). "The Passion and Death of Rahman the Kurd: Dreaming Kurdistan"Carol Prunhuber. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  75. "Dr Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou"SARA Distribution. Foundation For Kurdish Library & Museum. Retrieved15 April 2013.
  76. Dr Carol Prunhuber (28 April 2012). "I wrote the book to denounce the assassination by the Iranian regime and the complicity of the Austrian authorities"KDP Press. Kurdistan Democratic Party KDP.Iran. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  77. "Kenneth Hale: Kenneth Locke Hale, a master of languages, died on October 8th, aged 67"The Economist. 1 November 2001. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  78. Keyser, Jay (10 November 2001). "Kenneth Hale: The master of more than 50 languages, he fought to protect vanishing native traditions"The Guardian (London). Retrieved 5 May 2013.

No comments: