Friday, October 2, 2009

royal history

royal histories

the name Cooch-Behar is derived from the name of the Koch tribes (the Rajbongshi or Rajbanshi or Koch Rajbongshi) indigenous to this region for many centuries.[4] The word Behar is the Sanskrit word bihar (to travel), which means the land through which the Koch kings used to roam.
See also: Koch dynasty

Maharaja Jagaddipendra Narayan
The princely state known during British rule as Cooch Behar had been part of the Kamarupa Kingdom from the 4th century to the 12th century. In the 12th century, the area became a part of the Kamata Kingdom, first ruled by the Khen dynasty from their capital at Kamatapur. The Khens were an indigenous tribe, and they ruled till about 1498 CE, when they fell to Alauddin Hussein Shah, the independent Pathan Sultan ofGour. The new invaders fought with the local Bhuyan chieftains and the Ahom king Suhungmung and lost control of the region. During this time, the Koch tribe became very powerful and proclaimed itself Kamateshwar (Lord of Kamata) and established the Koch dynasty.
The first important Koch ruler was Biswa Singha, who came to power in 1510 or 1530 CE.[5] Under his son, Nara Narayan, the Kamata Kingdom reached its zenith.[6] Nara Narayan's younger brother, Shukladhwaj (Chilarai), was a noted military general who undertook expeditions to expand the kingdom, and he became governor of its eastern portion. After Chilarai's death, his son Raghudev became governor of this eastern portion. Since Nara Narayan did not have a son, Raghudev was seen as the heir apparent. However, a late child of Nara Narayan removed Raghudev's claim to the throne. To placate him, Nara Narayan had to anoint Raghudev as a vassal chief of the portion of the kingdom east of the Subansiri river. This area came to be known as Koch Hajo. After the death of Nara Narayan in 1584, Raghudev declared independence, and the kingdom ruled by the son of Nara Narayan, Lakshmi Narayan, came to be known as Cooch Behar. The division of the Kamata Kingdom into Cooch Behar and Koch Hajo was permanent.
The early capital of Koch Kingdom (Cooch Behar) was not static and became stable only when shifted to Cooch Behar town. Maharaja Rup Narayan, on the advice of an unknown saint, transferred the capital from Attharokotha to Guriahati (now called Cooch Behar town) on the banks of the Torsa river between 1693 and 1714. After this, the capital was always in or near its present location.
In 1661 CE, Maharaja Pran Narayan planned to expand his kingdom. However, Mir Jumla, the subedar of Bengal under the Mughal emperor Aurangazeb, attacked Cooch Behar and conquered the territory, meeting almost no resistance.[7] The town of Cooch Behar was subsequently named Alamgirnagar.[8] However, Maharaja Pran Narayan regained his kingdom within a few days.
During 1772–1773, the king of Bhutan attacked and captured Cooch Behar. To expel the Bhutanese, the kingdom of Cooch Behar signed a treaty with the British East India Company on 5 April 1773, and the king of Cooch Behar became a feudal ruler under the British.[9]

Cooch Behar Palace
The famous Victor Jubilee Palace, a landmark in the city, was designed on the lines of Buckingham Palace of London, in 1887, during the reign of Maharaja Nripendra Narayan.[8] In 1878, the maharaja married the daughter of Brahmo preacher Keshab Chandra Sen, and this union led to a renaissance in Cooch Behar state.[10] Maharaja Nripendra Narayan is known as the architect of modern Cooch Behar town.[11]
Under an agreement between the kings of Cooch Behar and the Indian Government at the end of British rule, Maharaja Jagaddipendra Narayan transferred full authority, jurisdiction and power of the state to the Dominion Government of India, effective 12 September 1949.[3] Cooch Behar District became part of the state of West Bengal on 19 January 1950, with Cooch Behar town as its headquarters.[3]

Torsa River near Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar is situated in the foothills of Eastern Himalayas, located at 26°22′N 89°29′E in the north of West Bengal. It is the largest town and district headquarters of Cooch Behar District with an area of 8.29 km².[12]
The Torsa river flows by the western side of town. Heavy rains in the area often cause strong river currents and flooding. The turbulent water carries huge amounts of sand, silt, and pebbles, which have an adverse effect on crop production as well as on the hydrology of the region.[13] Alluvial deposits form the soil, which is acidic.[13] Soil depth varies from 15 cm to 50 cm, superimposed on a bed of sand. The foundation materials are igneous and metamorphic rocks at a depth 1000 m to 1500 m. The soil has low levels ofnitrogen with moderate levels of potassium and phosphorus. Deficiencies of boron, zinc, calcium,magnesium, and sulphur are high.[13]
The town of Cooch Behar and its surrounding regions face deforestation due to increasing demand for fuel and timber, as well as air pollution from increasing vehicular traffic. The local flora include palms, bamboos, creepers, ferns, orchids, aquatic plants, fungi, timber, grass, vegetables, and fruit trees. Migratory birds, along with many local species, are found in the city, especially around the Sagardighi and other water bodies.[14]
Five distinct seasons (summer, monsoons, autumn, winter and spring) can be observed in Cooch Behar, of which summer, monsoons and winter are more prominent. Cooch Behar has a moderate climate characterised by heavy rainfall during the monsoons and slight rainfall from October to mid-November.[13] The district does not have high temperatures at any time of the year. The summer season is from April, the hottest month, to May. During the summer season, the mean daily maximum temperature is 32.5°C, and the mean daily minimum is 20.2 °C.[15] The winter season lasts from the end of November to February; January is the coldest, when temperature ranges between 10.4 °C and 24.1 °C.[15] The lowest and highest temperatures recorded have been 3.9 °C and 39.9 °C respectively.[citation needed] The atmosphere is highly humid throughout the year except from February to May, when relative humidity is around 50 to 70 percent. The rainy season lasts from June to September. Average annual rainfall in the district is 3,201 mm.[15] However, the climate has undergone a drastic change in the past few years, with the mercury rising and the rainfall decreasing each year.[16]

Most of the government offices are situated in the Sagardighi area
The central and state governments are the largest employers in Cooch Behar town.[citation needed]. Cooch Behar is home to a number of district-level and divisional-level offices and has a large government-employee workforce. Business is mainly centred on retail goods; the main centres lie on B.S. Road, Rupnarayan Road,Keshab Road and at Bhawaniganj Bazar.
An industrial park has been built at Chakchaka, just four kilometres from town, on the route to Tufanganj. A number of small companies such as Poddar Food Products Pvt., Ltd, and Deepa Casing Pvt., Ltd have set up industries there.[17]
Farming is a major source of livelihood for the nearby rural populace, and it supplies the town with fruits and vegetables. Poorer sections of this semi-rural society are involved in transport, basic agriculture, small shops and manual labour in construction. As the town is near the international border, the Border Security Force (B.S.F.) maintains a large presence in the vicinity of Cooch Behar. This gives rise to a large population of semi-permanent residents, who bring revenue to the local economy. The state government is trying to promote Cooch Behar as a tourist destination, though income from tourism is low.[18]
[edit]Civic administration

The office of the District Magistrate
Cooch Behar Municipality is responsible for the civic administration of the town. The municipality consists of a board of councillors, elected from each of the 20 wards[19] of Cooch Behar town as well as a few members nominated by the state government. The board of councillors elects a chairman from among its elected members; the chairman is the executive head of the municipality. The present chairman is Biren Kundu. Currently, the Indian National Congress Party holds power in the municipality. The state government looks after education, health and tourism in the town.
The town is within the Cooch Behar (Lok Sabha constituency) and elects one member to the Lok Sabha(the Lower House of the Indian Parliament). The town area is covered by one assembly constituency, Cooch Behar Dakshin that elects one member to the Vidhan Sabha, which is the West Bengal state legislative assembly.[20] Cooch Behar town comes under the jurisdiction of the district police (which is a part of the state police); the Superintendent of Police oversees the town's security and matters pertaining to law and order. Cooch Behar is also home to the District Court.
[edit]Utility services
Cooch Behar is a well-planned town,[21] and the municipality is responsible for providing basic services, such as potable water and townsanitation. The water is supplied by the municipality using its groundwater resources, and almost all the houses in the municipal area are connected through the system. Solid waste is collected every day by the municipality van from individual houses. The surface drains, mostly uncemented, drain into the Torsa River. Electricity is supplied by the West Bengal State Electricity Board, and the West Bengal Fire Serviceprovides emergency services like fire tenders. Most of the roads are metalled (macadam), and street lighting is available throughout the town. The Public Works Department is responsible for road maintenance in the town and on the roads connecting Cooch Behar with other towns in the region. Health services in Cooch Behar include a government-owned District Hospital, a Regional Cancer Centre, and private nursing homes.
Rickshaws are the most widely available public transport within Cooch Behar town. Most of Cooch Behar's residents stay within a few kilometres of the town centre and have their own vehicles, mostly motorcycles and bicycles.
The New Cooch Behar railway station is around five kilometres from town and is well connected to almost all major Indian cities. The rail route is one of the important connecting North-East India with remaining parts of the country. All express and Superfast trains going towards North East have a stoppage here. Another station named Cooch Behar situated inside the town exists but only two pairs of local trains run on this route.
Cooch Behar is headquarters of the North Bengal State Transport Corporation, which runs regular bus service to places in West Bengal, Assamand Bihar. Private buses are also available. Most buses depart from the Central Bus Terminus near Cooch Behar Rajbari. Hired vehicles are also available from the taxi stand near Transport Chowpathi.
Cooch Behar has an airport that, at present, is defunct, but plans are being considered to make it operational soon.[22] At present, the nearest airport is in Bagdogra near Siliguri, about 160 kilometres from Cooch Behar. Indian Airlines, Jet Airways and Kingfisher Airlines are the three major carriers that connect the area to Delhi, Kolkata and Guwahati.
As per the 2001 census,[23] the Cooch Behar municipal area has a population of 76,812. The sex ratio is 972 females per 1,000 males. The decadal growth rate for population is 7.86 %. Males constitute 50.6% of the population, and females constitute 49.4%. Cooch Behar has an average literacy rate of 82%, which is higher than the national average of 64.84%. The male literacy rate is 86%, while female literacy rate is 77%. In Cooch Behar, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.[24]
The major religion followed is Hinduism, followed by Islam; Christianity and Sikhism. The population's ethnic composition is closely linked with that of Bengal and Assam. Communities that inhabit Cooch Behar include the Bengalis, Gorkha, Marwaris, Biharis and Rajbangsi. Commonly spoken languages include Bengali and Hindi. English and Assameese are understood by most of the people.[15]

The Ras Chakra during Ras Mela in Madan Mohan Bari
Popular festivals in Cooch Behar include, Durga Puja in October, along with Ras Purnima, when a big fair is organised in the town near the famous Madan Mohan Temple.[25] Cooch Behar Ras mela is the oldest in the North Bengal region.[26] Other major festivals celebrated in the region include Pohela Baishakh (Bengali New Year), Rathayatra, Dolyatra or Basanta-Utsab, Diwali, Poush parbon (festival of Poush), Christmas, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha. During Rathayatra, a small fair is organised at Gunjabari area of the town.
Cooch Behar has a mixture of cultures, similar to those of West Bengal and Bangladesh. Rice and fish are traditional favorites, leading to a common saying that "fish and rice make a Bengali" (machhe bhate bangali). Meat consumption has increased with higher production in recent years. Bhuna Khicuhri (a dish made of rice and dal) and labra (a fully mixed-vegetable preparation) are quite popular and are served during any religious occasion. As in any part of West Bengal, people of Cooch Behar are known to prepare distinctive confections from milk products; popular ones are Rôshogolla, Chômchôm Kalakand SandeshMisti Doi and Kalojam. Bengal's vast repertoire of fish-based dishes includes various hilsa, ilish preparations (a favorite among Bengalis). Fast foods, such as Paratha (fried bread), egg roll (flatbread roll with vegetable stuffings and egg), and phuchka (deep fried crêpe with tamarind and lentil sauce), are also widely popular. The momo is another popular snack made from vegetable or meat filling, which is steamed and served with a soup. Another popular snack is Ghatigaram, a variety of Jhalmuri (a mixture made out of flattened rice and other spices).
Bengali women commonly wear a sari (shaŗi) and the salwar kameez, which are distinctly designed as per local customs. However, Western-style attire is also quite popular, especially amongst youngsters. Men wear traditional costumes such as the kurta with dhoti or pyjama, often on religious occasions.
A characteristic feature of Cooch Behar is the Para or neighbourhoods with a strong sense of community attachment. Typically, every para has its own community club with a clubroom and often a playground. People here habitually indulge in adda or leisurely chat, and these adda sessions are often a form of freestyle intellectual conversation. Residents of Cooch Behar are fond of music and generally listen to Rabindra Sangeet, Bangla Bands, Hindi Pop music and the local Bhawaiya Sangeet. The local Bengali dialect, is different from the one spoken in Kolkata. The local dialect is more closer to that of East Bengal and a mix of Assamese and Rajbangsi language.
The sole museum in Cooch Behar is located inside the Cooch Behar Palace. It has a variety of photographs and articles used by the maharajas of Cooch Behar and also information about the tribals of North Bengal. The town boasts a well-archived North Bengal State Library. Rabindra Bhawan, an auditorium, is often chosen as the venue for cultural events such as dramas, concerts, poetry-recitals, and dance programs. Temples exist throughout region; the Madan Mohan Temple, Bara Debi Bari and Rajmata Temple are centres of religious and cultural importance.

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The people of Cooch Behar/Koch Behar speaks Rajbongshi Language. The Rajbongshi Language had coined different terms and names during the Past centuries from its inception in the ancient Kamarupa Kingdom, the Rajbongshi language is also named or called and known as Desi/Kamatapuri language and it is also known as Goalpariya in Assam, Goalpara is one of the ancient Priencely state ruled by Rajbongshi Kings and the Royal Family are still existing and resided in Assam. It is some times said that Rajbongshi is a part of Assamese culture in Assam and the Scholars also says that it is the Part of Rich Bengali Heritage and culture. If we see this Rajbongshi language we can find some similarities of both Bengali and Assamese language and also Sanskrit, but Rajbongshi people believes that their language is the ancient language in this part of world and it has originated from Sanskrit only.

A.B.N. Seal College Building
Cooch Behar's schools are either run by the state government or by private and religious organisations. The schools usually use English and Bengali as their medium of instruction, although the use of national language Hindi is also stressed. The schools are affiliated with the ICSE or the CBSE or the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education. Some of the reputed schools in the town include Kendriya Vidyalaya, St. Mary’s H.S. School, B.D. Jain Modern School, Jenkins School, Cooch Behar Rambhola High School, Nipendra Narayan H.S. School, Maharani Indira Devi High School, Uchha Balika Vidhyalaya, and Sunity Academy. There are five[27] colleges and a polytechnic in the Cooch Behar town including A.B.N. Seal College, Cooch Behar College, University B.T. & Evening College, Thakur Panchanan Mahila Mahavidyalayaall of which are affiliated with the University of North Bengal,Siliguri and Cooch Behar Polytechnic (Estd. August 1964) a Government Diploma level Institute with 3 yrs.(10+) Civil, Electrical, Mechanical & Automobile Engineering and 2 yrs.(12+) Pharmacy course under West Bengal State Council of Technical Education,Kolkatta.
There is also an Agricultural University, Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, situated just outside the main town at Pundibari.
Newspapers in Cooch Behar include English language dailies, The Statesman and The Telegraph, which are printed in Siliguri, and The Hindustan Times and the Times of India, which are printed in Kolkata and received after a day's delay. In addition, Hindi and Bengali publications, including Anandabazar Patrika, Bartaman, Ganashakti, Uttar Banga Sambad and Dainik Jagran, are available.
The public radio station All India Radio is the only radio channel that can be received in Cooch Behar. However, recently WorldSpace Satellite Radio has started transmission in Cooch Behar. Cooch Behar receives almost all the television channels available in the rest of the country. Apart from the state-owned terrestrial network Doordarshan, cable television serves most of the homes in the town, while satellite television is common in the outlying areas and in wealthier households. Besides mainstream Indian television channels, the town also receives Nepali television channels and Bangladeshi television channels.
Cooch Behar has three cinema halls, featuring Hindi, Bengali, and English films. Internet cafés are available in the main market area, connected through broadband, provided by BSNL. The area is serviced by local cell phone companies such as BSNL, Reliance Infocomm, Vodafone,Aircel, Tata Indicom and Airtel.

Cooch Behar Stadium
Like most other towns in India, Cooch Behar has not been left out in the game of cricket. Cricket is the most popular game followed by football, swimming, badminton, volley ball, kabadi. Cooch Behar has two outdoor stadiums, M.J.N. Stadium and Cooch Behar Stadium, for games such as cricket and football. Cooch Behar also has a new indoor stadium, Netaji Subhas Indoor Stadium. Inter-district and inter-school meets are often held in these stadiums. Swimming is practised under the guidance of trained coaches in the local Sagardighi. The popularity of games changes according to the season - for example, cricket and badminton are played during winter, swimming and water polo in summer and football during the monsoon. Cooch Behar town is one of few district towns in India with three stadiums

Indira Raje of Baroda (19 February 1892–6 September 1968), later the Maharani of Cooch Behar, was the consort of Maharaja Jitendra of Cooch Behar and a princess of Baroda in her own right. She also served as regent of Cooch Behar during the minority of her son.

· 1 The Baroda Years
o 1.1 "What does the princess mean....?"
o 1.2 Wedding
· 2 Cooch Behar
· 3 Children
· 4 Other
· 5 See also
· 6 References
[edit]The Baroda Years
Indira was born the only daughter of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III of Baroda and his wife Maharani Chimnabai (1871-1958). She grew up with her several brothers at the opulent Laxmi Vilas Palace in Baroda, and was betrothed at a young age to Madho Rao Scindia, the then Maharaja of Gwalior. During the period of engagement, Indira attended the Delhi durbar of 1911, where she met the dashing Jitendra, younger brother of the then Maharaja of Cooch Behar. Within days, they were in love and had decided to marry.
[edit]"What does the princess mean....?"
Indira knew that her parents would be aghast; many issues were involved: the diplomatic repercussions of breaking a standing engagement with the Scindia ruler of Gwalior, one of the premier 21-gun-salute princes of India; the scandal and universal opprobium that would certainly ensue; also the fact the Jitendra was the younger son (and thus unlikely ever to become king) of a family that ruled a remote and insignificant state in the eastern hills.
Indira circumvented her parents by taking the initiative in breaking her engagement herself, a daring act for an 18-year-old Indian maiden of that era. She wrote to her fiance saying that she did not wish to marry him. In Baroda, Indira's father received a single-sentence telegram from the maharaja of Gwalior: "What does the princess mean by her letter?" This was the first inkling her stunned parents had of Indira's intentions. The maharaja of Gwalior behaved in exemplary fashion, writing an understanding letter to Indira's father which he signed off as "your son"; however, the disgrace was great and was felt keenly by Indira's parents.
The breaking of the engagement was accomplished, but this defiance of her parents did not serve to reconcile them to her marrying Jitendra. Indira parents apparently regarded Jitendra as a playboy from a feckless family; they even ventured to summon him and give him a personal warning to stay away. Nothing worked; Indira and Jitendra were equally adamant. Eventually, perhaps also in recognition of the fact that respectable alliances for Indira were now unlikely, her parents made a half-way compromise. They allowed Indira to leave their roof, proceed to London and wed Jitendra.
Indira and Jitendra were wed at a hotel in London with no member of Indira's family present. They were wed by the rites of the Brahmo Samaj, the sect to which Jitendra's mother, a daughter of Keshub Chunder Sen, adhered.
[edit]Cooch Behar
It happened that at the time of the wedding, Jitendra elder brother, the maharaja of Cooch Behar, was grievously ill. Within days of the wedding, he died of ailments arising from alcohol abuse, and Jitendra became maharaja of Cooch Behar. The couple lived a relatively happy life and rapidly became the parents of five children. However, alcoholism was endemic in Jitendra's family, and he died at a young age, within a decade of the wedding.
Indira was now not only a young widow and the mother of five, but also regent of Cooch Behar during the minority of her elder son. She faced her situation not merely with courage but indeed with verve. Her administrative skills were deemed by observers very middling indeed, but Indira quickly gained a reputation as a compulsive socialite and party animal, who spend prolonged periods of time in Europe and away from Cooch Behar. There have also been suggestions of her having been free with her favours, and an amour with the Prince George, Duke of Kent has also been speculated upon.
Jitendra Narayan's mother Maharani Sunity Devi(1864-1933) was the rajmata of Cooch Behar. She was the wife of Maharaja Nripendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur and the daughter of Keshab Chunder Sen, an illustrious Brahmo leader and social reformer of Bengal. She was a highly educated and an erudite women of her time. She established schools, institutions and did a lot of pioneering work for women of her princely state and all around Bengal. She wrote her autobiography in English, which was published in London in 1920. This was the first autobiography written in English by any Indian woman.
Indira was the mother of three daughters and two sons.
1. Her elder son, Jagaddipendra Narayan, succeeded his father as Maharaja of Cooch Behar, and was the last ruling prince of his dynasty; Cooch Behar was merged with the dominion of India (later the union of India) during his reign. He had no legitimate children, and was succeeded by his nephew Virajendra.
2. The second son, Indrajitendra, married a daughter of the Maharaja of Pithapuram estate in present-day Andhra Pradesh. They were the parents of Virajendra and also of Uttara Devi, Maharani of Kotah in Rajasthan.
3. Indira's eldest daughter, Ila, married a member of the royal family of Tripura. Her son took for wife the actress Moon Moon Sen; they are the parents of bollywood starlets Raima and Riya.
4. Indira's second daughter, Gayatri, became the third wife of the Maharaja of Jaipur, and was a noted celebrity in her own right.
5. Indira's youngest daughter Menaka married the Maharaja of Dewas Jr in central India.
Prince Jitendra's elder brother Raj Rajendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur ascended the 'gaddi' (throne) of the Cooch Behar state after his father Maharaja Nripendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur's death in 1911. Raj Rajendra Narayan attended Mayo College, Ajmer; Eton and Oxford and was very westernised. He was in London for many years and puportedly had an affair with an American actress Edna May. But the Cooch Behar royal authority did not grant him permission to marry her lest he would be dethroned. He developed massive alcohol consumption and fell seriously ill. He died few months after his younger brother Prince Jitendra Narayan's marriage with Princess Indira Devi Gaekwad of Baroda in 1913. He was only 32.
Indira's elder son assumed full powers as ruler of Cooch Behar in 1936. Indira thereafter spent a major portion of her time in Europe. She died in 1968. Indira Devi faced many tragedies in her lifetime. Indira Devi lost two of her children: Princess Ila Devi who died at a very young age and Prince Indrajit Narayan Bhup, who died in a fire accident leaving behind his wife Princess Kamala of Pithapuram. Maharani Indira Devi spent the last years of her life in Bombay and died there on September

There were as many as 568 states in India before independence. A Princely State(also called Native State or Indian State) was a nominally sovereign[1] entity of British rule in India that was not directly administered by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule[2] such as suzerainty or paramountcy.

· 1 The British Raj and the Native States
· 2 Princely status and titles
· 3 Precedence and prestige
· 4 The doctrine of lapse
· 5 Colonial governance
· 6 A short list of Native States in 1909
o 6.1 Under suzerainty of the Central Government
o 6.2 Under a Provincial Government
· 7 Accession
· 8 Post-independence
o 8.1 India
o 8.2 Pakistan
· 9 Other princely states
· 10 See also
· 11 Notes
· 12 References
· 13 External links
[edit]The British Raj and the Native States

The Govindgarh Palace of the Maharaja of Rewa. The palace which was built as a hunting lodge later became famous for the first white tigers that were found in the adjacent jungle and raised in the palace zoo.
India under the British Raj or the British Indian Empire consisted of two divisions: British India and the Native States or Princely states. In its Interpretation Act of 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions:[3]
The expression British India shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India, or through any Governor or other officer subordinate to the Governor-General of India. The expression India shall mean British India together with any territories of a Native Prince or Chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty, exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any Governor or other officer subordinate to the Governor-General of India. (52 & 53 Vict. cap. 63, sec. 18)
(In general the term "British India" had been used (and is still used) to also refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858.[4] The term has also been used to refer to the "British in India."[5])
Suzerainty over 175 Princely States, some of the largest and most important, was exercised (in the name of the British Crown) by central government of British India under the Viceroy; the remaining, approximately 500, states were dependents of the provincial governments of British India under a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or Chief Commissioner (as the case might have been).[6] A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local; in contrast, the courts of the Princely States existed under the authority of the respective rulers of those states.[6]
[edit]Princely status and titles

The Nawab of Junagadh Bhadur Khan III (seated center in an ornate chair) shown in a 1885 photograph with state officials and family.
The Indian rulers bore various titles — including Maharaja ("great king"), Badshah("emperor"), Raja ("king"), Nawab ("governor"), Nizam, Wāli, and many others. Whatever the literal meaning and traditional prestige of the ruler's actual title, the British government translated them all as "prince," in order to avoid the implication that the native rulers could be "kings" with status equal to that of the British monarch.
Some Hindu rulers used the title Thakur or its variant Thakore.
More prestigious Hindu rulers (mostly existing before the Mughal Empire, or having split from such old states) often used the title "Raja," or a variant such as "Rana," "Rao," "Rawat" or "Rawal." Also in this 'class' were several Thakur sahibs and a few particular titles, such as Sar Desai.
The most prestigious Hindu rulers usually had the prefix "maha" ("great", compare for example Grand duke) in their titles, as in Maharaja, Maharana, Maharao, etc. The states of Travancore and Cochin had queens regnant styled Maharani, generally the female forms applied only to sisters, spouses and widows, who could however act as regents.
There were also compound titles, such as (Maha)rajadhiraj, Raj-i-rajgan, often relics from an elaborate system of hierarchical titles under the Mughal emperors. For example, the addition of the adjective Bahadur raised the status of the titleholder one level.
Furthermore most dynasties used a variety of additional titles, such as Varma in South India. This should not be confused with various titles and suffixes not specific to princes but used by entire (sub)castes.
The Sikh princes concentrated at Punjab, usually adopted Hindu type titles when attaining princely rank; at a lower level Sardar was used.
Muslim rulers almost all used the title "Nawab" (the Arabic honorific of naib, "deputy," used of the Mughal governors, who became de facto autonomous with the decline of the Mughal Empire), with the prominent exceptions of the Nizam of Hyderabad & Berar, the Wāli/Khan of Kalat and the Wāli of Swat. Other less usual titles included Darbar Sahib, Dewan, Jam, Mehtar (unique to Chitral) and Mir (from Emir).
[edit]Precedence and prestige

Photograph (1900) of the Maharani of Sikkim. Sikkim was under the suzerainty of the Provincial government of Bengal; its ruler received a 15-gun salute.
However, the actual importance of a princely state cannot be read from the title of its ruler, which was usually granted (or at least recognised) as a favour, often in recognition for loyalty and services rendered historically by the Mughal emperor, and later by the British rulers succeeding it as paramount power (first the HEIC, de facto; later the British crown, and ultimately assuming the style Emperor of India as successor to the emperor of the abolished Mughal realm). Although some titles were raised once or even repeatedly, there was no automatic updating when a state gained or lost real power. In fact, princely titles were even awarded to holders of domains (mainly jagirs) and even zamindars (tax collectors), which were not states at all. Various sources give significantly different numbers of states and domains of the various types. Even in general, the definition of titles and domains are clearly not well-established. There is also no strict relation between the levels of the titles and the classes of gun salutes, the real measure of precedence, but merely a growing percentage of higher titles in classes with more guns.
The gun salute system was used to set unambiguously the precedence of the major rulers in the area in which the British East India Company was active, or generally of the states and their dynasties. Princely rulers were entitled to be saluted by the firing of an odd number of guns between three and 21, with a greater number of guns indicating greater prestige. (There were many minor rulers who were not entitled to any gun salutes, and as a rule the majority of gun-salute princes had at least nine, with numbers below that usually the prerogative of Arab coastal Sheikhs also under British protection.) Generally, the number of guns remained the same for all successive rulers of a particular state, but individual princes were sometimes granted additional guns on a personal basis. Furthermore, rulers were sometimes granted additional gun salutes within their own territories only, constituting a semi-promotion.
While the states of all these rulers (about 120) were known as salute states, there were far more so-called non-salute states of lower prestige, and even more princes (in the broadest sense of the term) not even acknowledged as such. On the other hand, the dynasties of certain defunct states were allowed to keep their princely status — they were known as Political Pensioners. Though none of these princes were awarded gun salutes, princely titles in this category were recognised as among certain vassals of salute states, and were not even in direct relation with the paramount power.
After independence, the (Hindu) Maharana of Udaipur displaced the Nizam of Hyderabad as the most senior prince in India, and the style Highness was extended to all rulers entitled to 9-gun salutes. When these dynasties had been integrated into the Indian Union they were promised continued privileges and an income, known as the Privy Purse, for their upkeep. Subsequently, when the Indian government abolished the Privy Purse in 1971, the whole princely order ceased to exist under Indian law, although many families continue to retain their social prestige informally; some descendants are still prominent in regional or national politics, diplomacy, business and high society.
At the time of Indian independence, only five rulers — the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maharaja of Mysore, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir state, the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda and the Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior — were entitled to a 21-gun salute. Five more rulers — the Nawab of Bhopal, the Maharaja Holkar of Indore, the Maharana of Udaipur, the Maharaja of Kolhapur and the Maharaja of Travancore — were entitled to 19-gun salutes. The most senior princely ruler was the (Muslim) Nizam of Hyderabad, who was entitled to the unique style Exalted Highness. Other princely rulers entitled to salutes of 11 guns (soon 9 guns too) or more were entitled to the style Highness. No special style was used by rulers entitled to lesser gun salutes.
As paramount ruler, and successor to the Mughals, the British King-Emperor of India, for whom the style of Majesty was reserved, was entitled to an 'imperial' 101-gun salute — in the European tradition also the number of guns fired to announce the birth of a (male) heir to the throne.
All princely rulers were eligible to be appointed to certain British orders of chivalry associated with India, The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India and The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire. Even women could be appointed as "Knights" (instead of Dames) of these orders. Rulers entitled to 21-gun and 19-gun salutes were normally appointed to the highest rank possible (Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India).
Many Indian princes served in the British army (as others in local guard or police forces), often rising to the high official ranks; some even served while on the throne. Many of these were appointed as ADC etc., either to the ruling prince of their own house (in the case of relatives of such rulers) or indeed to the British King-Emperor. Many also saw action, both on the subcontinent and on other fronts, during both World Wars.
It was also not unusual for members of princely houses to be appointed to various colonial offices, often far from their native state, or to enter the diplomatic corps.
[edit]The doctrine of lapse
A controversial aspect of Company rule was the doctrine of lapse, a policy under which lands whose feudal ruler had died (or otherwise become unfit to rule) without an heir would become directly controlled by the company. This policy went counter to Indian tradition where unlike Europe it was far more the accepted norm for a ruler to appoint his own heir.
The doctrine of lapse was pursued most vigorously by the Governor-General Sir James Ramsay, 10th Earl (later 1st Marquess) of Dalhousie. Dalhousie annexed seven states, including the Maratha states of Nagpur, Jhansi, Satara and Awadh (Oudh), whose Nawabs he had accused of misrule. Resentment over the annexation of these states turned to indignation when the heirlooms of the Maharajas of Nagpur were auctioned off in Calcutta. Dalhousie's actions contributed to the rising discontent amongst the upper castes which played a large part in the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857. The last Mughal Badshah (emperor), whom many of the mutineers saw as a figurehead to rally around, was deposed following its suppression.
In response to the unpopularity of the doctrine, it was discontinued with the end of company rule and the formation of the Indian Empire, and no further states were absorbed in such a way.
[edit]Colonial governance

Photograph (1894) of the 19-year old Maharajah of Kohlapur visiting the British resident and his staff at the Residency.
By the beginning of the 20th century, the four largest states — Hyderabad State, Mysore, Jammu and Kashmir, and Baroda — were directly under the authority of the Governor-General of India, in the person of a British Resident. Two agencies ,Rajputana Agency and Central India Agency, oversaw 20 and 148 princely states, respectively. The remaining princely states had political officers, or Agents, who answered to the administrators of India's provinces. Five princely states were then under the authority of Madras, 354 under Bombay, 26 of Bengal, 2 under Assam, 34 under Punjab, 15 under Central Provinces and Berar and 2 under United Provinces.
By the early 1930s, the British took over the state whose king had died (Doctrine of Lapse). Most of the princely states under the authority of India's provinces were organised into new agencies, answerable to the Governor-general, on the model of the Central India - and Rajputana agencies: the Eastern States Agency, Punjab States Agency, Baluchistan Agency, Deccan States Agency, Madras States Agency and the Northwest Frontier States Agency. The Baroda residency was combined with the princely states of northern Bombay Presidency into the Baroda, Western States and Gujarat Agency. Gwalior was separated from the Central India Agency and placed under its own Resident, and the states of Rampur and Benares, formerly under the authority of the United Provinces, were placed under the Gwalior Residency in 1936. The princely states of Sandur and Banganapalle in Mysore Presidency were transferred to the authority of the Mysore Resident in 1939.
[edit]A short list of Native States in 1909
The native states in 1909 included five large states that were in "direct political relations" with the Government of India. Of these, Nepal, differed from others, in that it was independent in its internal administration, but was represented internationally by the Government of India.[7] For the complete list of princely states in 1947, see List of Indian Princely States.
[edit]Under suzerainty of the Central Government

Five large Princely States in direct political relations with the Central Government in India[7]
Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901 Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousandRupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of local political officer
Hyderabad 82,698 approx. 11.14 million (Hindus and Muslims) 359 Nizam, Turk, Sunni Muslim 21 Resident in Hyderabad
Mysore 29,444 5.53 million (mostly Hindu) 190 Maharaja, Rajput, Hindu 21 Resident in Mysore
Baroda 8,099 1.95 million (chiefly Hindu) 123 Maharaja, Maratha, Hindu 21 Resident at Baroda
Kashmir and Jammu 80,900 2.91 million including Gilgit, Skardu, Ladakh, and Punch (Chiefly Muslim) 87 Maharaja, Dogra Rajput, Hindu 19 (21 within Kashmir) Resident in Kashmir
Total 445,891 25.54 million 909

Central India Agency, Rajputana Agency and the Baluchistan Agency
[edit]Under a Provincial Government
Burma (52 States)

52 States in Burma: all except the Karen States were included in British India[11]
Name of Princely State Area in Square Miles Population in 1901 Approximate Revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for Ruler Designation of local political officer
Hsipaw(Thibaw) 5,086 105,000 (Buddhist) 3 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist 9 Superintendent,Northern Shan States
Kengtung 12,000 190,000 (Buddhist) 1 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist 9 SuperintendentSouthern Shan States
Mongnai 2,717 44,000 (Buddhist) 0.5 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist 9 Superintendent Southern Shan States
5 KarenStates 4,830 45,795 (Buddhist and Animists) 0.5 Superintendent Southern Shan States
44 Other States 42,198 792,152 (Buddhist and Animist) 8.5
Total 67,011 1,177,987 13.5
Other states under provincial governments

[show]Please expand to view the tables for other states under Provincial Governments
After independence in 1947, the princely states were forced to accede — and thus sign away their political autonomy — either to the secular, mainly Hindu dominion of India or the majority Islamic dominion of Pakistan (consisting of West Pakistan and East Pakistan; the latter would later break away as Bangladesh). The accession was to be chosen by its ruling Prince, not by the population, akin to the 16th century European principle of cuius regio eius religio - though, in practice, there were exceptions to this rule. Most acceded peacefully, except for four: Junagadh, Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir and Tripura.
Junagadh, the largest state in the Kathiawar peninsula (now in Gujarat), was a princely state with a Muslim ruler over a Hindu majority. It had originally announced to join Pakistan by its Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III. He was traveling in Pakistan's capital Karachi to sign the treaty of accession when the Indian Army, with the support of Junagadh's Hindu majority, took over control of the state. The Nawab fled into exile and the Indian-appointed Prime Minister of the state announced its merger with India.
In Hyderabad, a similar fate befell a Muslim dynasty which had been the highest in rank since the abolition of the Mughals at Delhi and the Kingdom of Oudh. The Muslim ruler of Hyderbad Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII, the last Nizam, and his followers, Razakars, wished to remain independent. The Indian Government carried out the so called “Hyderabad Police Action” against the Nizam. Code-named “Operation Polo” by the Indian military, this action by the Indian armed forces' ended the rule of the Nizams of Hyderabad and led to the incorporation of the princely state of Hyderabad into the Indian Union.
Jammu and Kashmir had a Muslim majority but was ruled by a Hindu Raja. The Muslim League-dominated legislative assembly issued one statement that represented the will of the Muslim people: “After carefully considering the position, the conference has arrived at the conclusion that accession of the State to Pakistan is absolutely necessary in view of the geographic, economic, linguistic, cultural and religious conditions…It is therefore necessary that the State should accede to Pakistan."
The Maharaja Hari Singh, reluctant, would have prefered to to remain independent, but was advised by his later Prime Minister, Mehr Chand Mahajan, that a landlocked country such as Kashmir would be soon engulfed by foreign powers such as the USSR or China[18].
However, M.A. Jinnah, creator and Governor-General of Pakistan, included Kashmir in his concept of Pakistan. The British-controlled Gilgit Scouts staged a rebellion in the Northern Areas, as a result of which this region became effectively a part of Pakistan, unilaterally without a referendum and is up to the present being administered by Pakistan as a part of 'Azad Kashmir'.
The Tribal Kabailis of the North West Frontier Province attacked and ravaged Kashmir proper, with the help of the Pakistan armed forces which were still controlled and administered by British officers.
With an independence no longer an option, the Maharaja now turned to India, requesting troops for safeguarding Kashmir. Though Indian Prime Minister Nehru was ready to send the troops, the acting Governor General of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma advised the Maharaja to accede to India before she can send her troops. Hence, considering the emergency situation he signed the instrument of accession to the Union of India. However, later evidence proved that the India army had invaded Kashmir before the the Maharaja had signed the instrument of accession, Pakistan also considered the document invalid and void as the maharaja had already fled the state of Jammu and Kashmir before signing it.
India sent forces into Kashmir soon afterwards. After pushing back the Pakistani irregulars, Nehru under Mountbatten's advise took the matter to the UN, insisting that Jammu and Kashmir's accession to India was legal.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 was adopted on 21 April 1948, stating that "(...) After hearing arguments from both India and Pakistan, the Council increased the size of the Commission established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 39 to five members, instructed the Commission to go to the subcontinent and help the governments of India and Pakistan restore peace and order to the region and prepare for a plebiscite to decide the fate of Kashmir".
The resolution further recommended that in order to ensure the impartiality of the plebiscite, Pakistan withdraw all tribesmen and nationals who entered the region for the purpose of fighting, and that India leave only the minimum number of troops needed to keep civil order. The Commission was also to send as many observers into the region as it deemed necessary to ensure the provisions of the resolution were enacted" [1].
In practice, the resolution failed to resolve the problem, which remains unresolved up to the present. At the time and up to the present, Pakistanis and Kashmiru separatists accused India of having acted with a douible standard - i.e., acting according to the wish of a majority Hindu population where the ruler was Muslim (as in the case of Junagadh) and according to the wishes of the Hindu ruler where the majority population was Muslim. (As Kashmir was no longer a Princely state, further developments fall outside the scope of the present page, and can be found in Kashmir#Post-1948 developments).
Tripura remained an independent kingdom after the Partition of India, until it joined India 2 years later under the Tripura Merger Agreement in the middle of an armed rebellion.

On accession by a princely state, its territories and administrations merged into the Union of India. The rulers of the princely states were allowed to retain their hereditary titles and official residences. Depending upon their size, importance and revenue they were also allowed to retain additional properties and given privy purses (in compensation of the state's revenue which now would go the new Union). On abolition of the privy purse (and the right to the hereditary titles) by the government in 1975 the princely states ceased to exist as recognised political entities.
Mohammed Abdul Ali Azim Jah, the former Prince of Arcot, is the only former royal in India who was not affected by the abolition of privy purses. In the order of precedence, he enjoys the rank of cabinet minister of the state of Tamil Nadu.
The former Nawab hails from a family that traces its lineage back to the second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattāb. The title 'Prince of Arcot', uniquely using the European style prince, was conferred on his ancestor by the British government in 1870 after the post of Nawab of the Carnatic (a title granted by the Mughal emperor) was abolished.
Former states sometimes still maintain and observe their ceremonies, forms of address etc. either as family traditions or as popular folk-customs. For example, processions during the popular Gangaur festival in Jaipur begin, as per tradition, from the City Palace, which remains the private residence of its former royal family.
Devgadh Baria was one of the princely states in western India which is planned on European town planning principles along with controlled architectural character at selected junctions in the town. The town is surrounded by about 250 mt high hills on three sides which dominate its skyline.
After independence, a new hereditary salute of 15 guns was granted in 1966 by President Ayub Khan, for the Wali of Swat, ruler of one of the last princely states to be created (1926). Before that, there were four Gun-Salute States in Pakistan: Bahawalpur, Kalat, Khairpur andChitral. A few lesser non-salute states also acceded to Pakistan, including Dir, Hunza, Kharan, Nagar, and Amb. In present-day Pakistan's tribal region in the North-West Frontier Province, the princely states were maintained until 1971, when all states were abolished by merger into the republic; all princely titles were abolished in 1972.
Kashmir was under a Maharaja, and is disputed and divided with India.

[edit]Other princely states
§ British Empire: Princely states existed elsewhere in the British Empire. Some of these were considered by the Colonial Office (or earlier by the BHEIC) as satellites of, and usually points of support on the naval routes to, British India, some important enough to be raised to the status of salute states.
§ A number of Arab states around the Persian Gulf, including Oman, the present-day United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, were Britishprotectorates under native rulers.
§ On the Malay peninsula a number of states, known as the Malay states, were administered by local rulers, who recognized British sovereignty; they still reign, but now constitutionally, in most constitutive states of modern Malaysia.
§ Netherlands: Indirect rule through princely states (or even mere tribal chieftaincies) was also practiced in other European nations' colonial empires. An example is the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia), which had dozens of local rulers (mainly Malay and Muslim, others tribal, Hindu or animist). The colonial term in Dutch was regentschap 'regency', but did not apply to lower-level fiefs.
§ It is not customary to use the term princely state, although it would be technically correct, for western principalities, neither in the feudal past (there were many, especially in the Holy Roman Empire, see Fürst) nor for the presently independent Principality of Monaco orPrincipality of Liechtenstein, nor for non-sovereign entities referred to as principalities such as Wales.

efore the Partition of India in 1947, hundreds of Princely States, also called Native States, existed in India which were not part of British India. These were the parts of the Indian subcontinent which had not been conquered or annexed by the British.
Things moved quickly after the partition of British India in 1947. By the end of 1949, all of the states except Sikkim had chosen to accede to one of the newly independent states of India or Pakistan or else had been annexed.

Main article: Princely state
For details of precedence between the states, see Salute state.
In principle, the princely states had internal autonomy, while by treaty the British had suzerainty and were responsible for their external affairs. In practice, while the states were indeed ruled by potentates with a variety of titles, such as Raja, Maharaja, Nawab, Khan or Nizam, the British had considerable influence.
By the time of the departure of the colonial power in 1947, only four of the largest of the states still had their own British Resident, a diplomatic title for advisors present in the states' capitals, while most of the others were grouped together into Agencies, such as the Central India Agency, the Deccan States Agency, and the Rajputana Agency.
From 1920, the states were represented in the Chamber of Princes, which held its meetings in New Delhi.
The most important states were ranked among the salute states.
By the Indian Independence Act 1947, the British gave up their suzerainty of the states and left each of them free to choose whether to join one of the newly independent countries of India or Pakistan. For a short time, some of the rulers explored the possibility of a federation of the states separate from either, but this came to nothing. Most of the states then decided to accede to India or to Pakistan, while others which held out for the possibility of independence were later annexed by India, such as Junagadh (1947-1948), Hyderabad on 18 September 1948, Bilaspur on 12 October 1948, and Bhopal on 1 May 1949. Dewan of Travancore chose to remain an independent country.
In Jammu and Kashmir, a state with a Muslim majority but a Hindu ruler, the Maharaja hoped to remain independent but acceded to India on 27 October 1947 at the outset of the invasion of Jammu and Kashmir by Pakistan - leading to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.
On 31 March 1948, Kalat acceded to Pakistan, although the brother of the Khan led a rebellion against this decision.
The last remaining independent state, Sikkim, was incorporated into India on 16 May 1975, following a referendum in which people of Sikkim overwhelmingly voted for this.
[edit]Indian Princely States at the time of independence on August 15 1947
There have been various differences in organisation before, repeatedly quite significant, during the British Raj.

[edit]Individual residencies

Princely State Now part of Last Ruler
Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra & Karnataka, India Asaf Jah VII
Jammu and Kashmir(partly) Jammu and Kashmir, India. H.H.Dr.Karan Singh
Travancore Kerala & Tamil Nadu, India Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma, Maharaja of Travancore
Sikkim Sikkim, India Palden Thondup Namgyal

[edit]Baluchistan Agency
Princely States of the Baluchistan Agency.

Princely State Now part of Last/Present Ruler
Kalat Balochistan, Pakistan H.H. Ahmad Yar Khan
Kharan Balochistan, Pakistan Habibullah Khan
Las Bela Balochistan, Pakistan Jam Ghulam Qadir Khan
Makran Balochistan, Pakistan Bai Khan Baloch Gikchi

[edit]Deccan States Agency and Kolhapur Residency
Princely States of Deccan States Agency and Kolhapur Residency.

Princely State Now part of Last Ruler
Akalkot Maharashtra, India Shrimant Rani Sumitra Bai Raje Bhonsle, Rani Saheb of Akalkot
Aundh Maharashtra, India HH Meherban Shrimant Bhagwant Rao Shripat Rao, Pant Pratinidhi Of Aundh
Bhor Maharashtra, India Raja Shrimant Sir Raghunathrao Shankarrao Babasaheb Pandit Pant Sachiv
Janjira Maharashtra, India HH Nawab Sidi Muhammed Khan II Sidi Ahmad Khan, Nawab of Janjira
Jath Maharashtra, India Lt. Shrimant Raja Vijaysinghrao Ramrao Babasaheb Dafle
Kolhapur Maharashtra, India HH Shrimant Rajashri Shahu II Chhatrapati Maharaj Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kolhapur
Kurundwad Maharashtra, India Meherban Raja Hariharrao Raghunathrao [Bapusaheb] Patwardhan, co-Raja of Kurundwad Jnr
Mudhol Karnataka, India HH Shrimant Raja Bhairavsinhrao Malojirao Ghorpade II
Phaltan Maharashtra, India Major HH Raja Bahadur Shrimant Ram raje Naik Nimbalkar

Sangli Maharashtra, India Capt. HH Shrimant Raja Saheb Sir Chintamanrao II Dhundirajrao Appasaheb Patwardhan
Sawantvadi Maharashtra, India Bhonsale clan
Savanur Karnataka, India Nawab of Savanur, Abdul Majid Khan II
[edit]Gwalior Residency

Princely States of the Gwalior Residency.

Princely State Now part of Last/Present Ruler
Gwalior Madhya Pradesh, India George Jivajirao Scindia
Varanasi Uttar Pradesh, India Pandit Dr. Vibhuti Narayan Singh
Bhadarva Madhya Pradesh, India
Garha Madhya Pradesh, India
Khaniyadhana Madhya Pradesh, India
Paron Madhya Pradesh, India
Rajgarh Madhya Pradesh, India
Rampur Uttar Pradesh, India H.H. Nawab Syed Muhammad Kazim 'Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Rampur
Umri Madhya Pradesh, India
[edit]Madras Presidency
Princely States of the Madras Presidency.

Princely State Now part of Last/Present Ruler
Cochin Kerala, India Kerala Varma
Banganapalle Andhra Pradesh, India H.H. Nawab Sayyid Fazl-i-'Ali Khan IV Bahadur, Nawab of Banganapalle
Pudukkottai Tamil Nadu, India H.H. Raja Sri Brahadamba Das Raja Sri Rajagopala Tondiman Bahadur, Raja of Pudukkottai
Sandur Karnataka, India Shrimant Maharaj Shri Murarrao Yeshwantrao Ghorpade, Hindurao, Mamlukatmadar Senapati, Raja of Sandur
Mysore Karnataka, India Jayachamaraja Wodeyar

[edit]North-West Frontier
Princely States of the North-West Frontier.

Princely State Now part of Last/Present Ruler
Amb North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan Nawab Saeed Khan
Chitral North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan H.H. Mehtar Saif-ul-Mulk Nasir
Dir North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan Muhammad Shah Khosru Khan
Phulra North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan Ata Muhammed Khan
Swat North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan Miangul Abdul-Haqq Jahanzib

[edit]States of the Punjab

States of the Punjab States Agency (Punjab).

Princely State Now part of Last/Present Ruler
Bahawalpur Punjab, Pakistan H.H. Sadeq Mohammad Khan V
Bilaspur Himachal Pradesh, India H.H. Raja Kirti Chand, Raja of Bilaspur
Faridkot Punjab, India Lt. H.H. Farzand-i-Sadaat Nishan Hazrat-i-Kaisar-i-Hind Raja Bharat Indar Singh Brar Bans Bahadur, Raja of Faridkot
Jind Haryana, India H.H. Maharaja Satbir Singh ["Prince Sunny"], Maharaja of Jind''
Kangra Himachal Pradesh, India H.H. Raja Aditya Dev Chand Katoch
Kalsia Haryana, India Raja HIMMAT SHER SINGH Sahib Bahadur
Kapurthala Punjab, India Brig. H.H. Maharaja Sri Sukhjit Singh Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala
Loharu Haryana, India H.H. Nawab Mirza Alauddin Ahmad Khan II (alias Parvez Mirza), Nawab of Loharu
Malerkotla Punjab, India
Mandi Himachal Pradesh, India H.H. Raja Sri Ashokpal Sen, Raja of Mandi
Nabha State Punjab, India H.H. Maharaja Hanuwant Singh Malvinder Bahadur, Maharaja of Nabha
Patiala Punjab, India Capt. H.H. Maharajadhiraj Shri Amarinder Singh, Maharaja of Patiala
Sirmur Himachal Pradesh, India Lt. H.H. Maharaja RAJENDRA PRAKASH Bahadur
Suket/ Surendernagar Himachal Pradesh, India H.H. Raja Hari Sen, Raja of Suket"
Siba Himachal Pradesh, India H.H.Raja Dr. Ashok K. Thakur
Tehri Garhwal Uttarakhand, India H.H. Maharaja Manujendra Shah Sahib Bahadur

[edit]States of the Rajputana Agency

States of the Rajputana Agency.

Princely State Now part of Last Ruler
Alwar Rajasthan, India HH Maharaja Tej Singh
Banswara Rajasthan, India H.H. Rai Rayan Mahimahendra Maharajadhiraj Maharawalji Sahib Shri Jagmalji II Sahib Bahadur, Naresh Rajya, Maharawal of Banswara.
Bikaner Rajasthan, India H.H. Sri Raj Rajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Narendra Sawai Maharaja Shiromani Ravi Raj Singhji Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner and Head of the Royal House of Bikaner.
Bharatpur Rajasthan, India Maharaja Suraj Mal, Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Randhir Singh, Maharaja Baldeo Singh, Maharaja Balwant Singh,Maharaja Jaswant Singh, Maharaja Ram Singh, Maharaja Kishan Singh.
Bundi Rajasthan, India Col. HH Maharao Raja Shri BAHADUR SINGHJI Bahadur
Dholpur Rajasthan, India Rana Kirat Singh, Rana Pohap Singh, Rana Bhagwant Singh, Rana Nihal Singh, Rana Ram Singh, Rana Udaybhanu Singh.
Dungarpur Rajasthan, India H.H. Rai-i-Rayan, Mahimahendra, Maharajadhiraj Maharawal Shri Mahipal Singhji II Sahib Bahadur, Maharawal of Dungarpur.
Jaipur Rajasthan, India Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II
Jaisalmer Rajasthan, India HH Maharajadhiraj Maharawal Sir JAWAHIR SINGH Bahadur
Jhalawar Rajasthan, India H. Maharajadhiraj Maharaj Rana Shri Chandrajit Singh Dev Bahadur, Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar.
Jodhpur Rajasthan, India H.H. Raj Rajeshwar Saramad-i-Rajha-i-Hindustan Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Shri Gaj Singhji II Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Jodhpur.
Karauli Rajasthan, India HH Maharaja Shri GANESH PAL Deo Bahadur Yadakul Chandra Bhal
Kishangarh Rajasthan, India HH Umdae Rajhae Buland Makan Maharajadhiraja Maharaja SUMER SINGHJI Bahadur
Kotah Rajasthan, India HH Maharao Shri BHIM SINGH II Bahadur

Kushalgarh Rajasthan, India Rao HARENDRA SINGH

Palanpur Gujarat, India
Pratabgarh Rajasthan, India Raja AJIT PRATAP SINGH
Shahpura Rajasthan, India HH Rajadhiraj SUDERSHAN SINGH
Sirohi Rajasthan, India
Tonk Rajasthan, India Nawab Muhammad Faruq Ali Khan
Mewar Rajasthan, India Maharana Sir Bhupal Singh
Lawa Rajasthan, India
Vallabhpur Rajasthan, India

[edit]Province of Sindh

Princely State Now part of Last Ruler
Khairpur Sindh, Pakistan H.H. George Ali Murad Khan
[edit]Gujarat States Agency and Baroda Residency

The Rajkumar College, Rajkot

Districts of Gujarat

Laxmi Vilas Palace, Baroda
§ Balasinor
§ Bansda
§ Bajana
§ Devgadh Baria
§ Baroda
§ Bhavnagar
§ Cambay
§ Chhota Udaipur
§ Dangs
§ Dhrangadhra
§ Gondal
§ Idar
§ Jawhar
§ Junagadh
§ Manavadar
§ Kutch
§ Lunavada
§ Morvi
§ Nawanagar
§ Porbandar
§ Poshina
§ Radhanpur
§ Rajpipla
§ Sachin
§ Sanjeda Mehvassi
§ Sant
§ Sanjeli
§ Surgana
§ Tharad
§ Vijaynagar
§ Vithalgarh
§ Wankaner
§ Vanod
[edit]States of Central India Agency

Map of British India, 1909

Subhash Marg, Indore

Bhil tribe girls in Jhabua

Orchha Palace, Madhya Pradesh
§ Ajaigarh
§ Ali Rajpur
§ Alipura
§ Baoni
§ Barannda
§ Barwani
§ Beri
§ Bhopal
§ Bijawar
§ Charkhari
§ Chhatarpur
§ Datia
§ Dewas
§ Dhar
§ Garrauli
§ Gaurihar
§ Indore
§ Jabua
§ Jaora
§ Jaso
§ Jigni
§ Kamta-Rajaula
§ Khaniadhana
§ Khilchipur
§ Kothi Baghelan
§ Kurwai
§ Lugasi
§ Maihar
§ Makrai
§ Mathwar
§ Muhammadgarh
§ Nagod (Unchhera)
§ Narsingarh
§ Orchha
§ Panna
§ Pathari
§ Piploda
§ Rajgarh
§ Ratlam
§ Rewah
§ Samthar
§ Sarila
§ Sitamau
[edit]States of the Eastern States Agency

Ujjayanta Palace in Tripura

Palace in Cooch Behar

The 19th century Ujjayanta Palace, now used as the meeting place of Tripura's State Legislative Assembly

Girivilas Palace in Sarangarh
§ Athmallik
§ Bastar
§ Baudh
§ Banaili
§ Changbhakar
§ Chhuikhadan
§ Cooch Behar
§ Darbhanga
§ Daspalla
§ Dhenkanal
§ Jashpur
§ Kalahandi
§ Kanker
§ Kawardha
§ Khairagarh
§ Kharsawan
§ Khondmals
§ Koriya (Koriya)
§ Mayurbhanj
§ Nandgaon
§ Nayagarh
§ Pal Lahara
§ Patna
§ Raigarh
§ Ramgarh
§ Sakti
§ Saraikela
§ Sarangarh
§ Sonpur
§ Surguja
§ Talcher
§ Tripura
§ Udaipur
[edit]Alphabetical list of former British India's princely states
Geographical and administrative assigning is indicative, as various names and borders have changed significantly, even entities (provinces, principalities) split, merged, renamed et cetera.
Furthermore, criteria of statehood (used for inclusion) differ between sources.
In some cases, several name variations or completely different names are included.
§ Achrol in Rajasthan - Thikana of the Princely State of Jaipur
§ Agar (?)
§ Agra Barkhera
§ Ahmadnagar - salute
§ Ajaigarh in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Ajraoda
§ Akalkot in Bombay
§ Akdia
§ Ali Rajpur in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Alampur
§ Alipura in Madhya Pradesh
§ Alwa
§ Alwar in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 15-guns (17-guns local)
§ Amala
§ Amarchanta vassal state
§ Amarnaghar in Saurashtra (Gujarat)
§ Amb (Tanawal state) Pakistani Frontier state
§ Ambaliara in Bombay
§ Amethi in Uttar Pradesh
§ Amod
§ Amrapur in Kathiawar; <> below
§ Amrapur in Rewa Kantha
§ Anandpur
§ Anegundi Zamindari
§ Anghad
§ Angre Political Pensioner
§ Ankevalia
§ Arcot (the Carnatic) Political Pensioner
§ Arnia
§ Assam Political Pensioner - roughly the homonymous Indian state
§ Athgarh in Orissa
§ Athmalik in Orissa
§ Aundh in Bombay
§ Awadh=Oudh Political Pensioner
§ Babra
§ Bagasra
§ Bagasra Hadala
§ Bagasra Khari
§ Bagasra Natwar
§ Bagasra Ram
§ Baghal in Himachal Pradesh (Punjab Hills States)
§ Baghat in Himachal Pradesh
§ Bagli
§ Bahawalpur in Pakistan
§ Bai
§ Bajana in Saurashtra
§ Bakhtgarh
§ Balasinor in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Balsan in Himachal Pradesh
§ Baltistan (western Tibetan kingdom, since 1840 subject to Kashmir) in Pakistan occupied Kashmir
§ Bamanbor
§ Bamra in Orissa
§ Banera in Chattisgarh
§ Banganapalle in Andhra Pradesh (was in Madras till 1-10-1953) - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Banka Pahari in Madhya Pradesh
§ Bansda in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Banswara in Rajastahn - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Bantva Manavadar
§ Bantva Sardargadh
§ Baoni in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Baramba in Orissa
§ Baraundha - Hereditary salute of 9-guns =?Baraundha Pathar Kachhar in Madhya Pradesh - salute
§ Bardia
§ Baria - Hereditary salute of 9-guns (11-guns personal) =? Bariya in Bombay
§ Barkhera Deo Dungri
§ Barkhera Panth
§ Baroda in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 21-guns
§ Barvala = Barwala in Saurashtra
§ Barwani in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Bashahr in Himachal Pradesh - Personal salute of 9-guns
§ Basoda
§ Bastar in Madhya Pradesh
§ Bavda vassal state
§ Beja in Himachal Pradesh
§ Benares in Uttar Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns local)
§ Bengal Political Pensioner - new title Nawab of Murshidabad (their new capital)
§ Beri (Behri) in Uttar Pradesh
§ Bhabhar
§ Bhadarwa
§ Bhadaura
§ Bhadli
§ Bhadvana
§ Bhadwa
§ Bhagat in Himachal Pradesh
§ Bhaisola
§ Bhajji in Himachal Pradesh
§ Bhalala
§ Bhandaria
§ Bharatpur in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 17-guns (19-guns local)
§ Bharejda
§ Bharudpura
§ Bhathan
§ Bhatkeri
§ Bhavnagar in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns local)
§ Bhawal
§ Bhioldia
§ Bhimoria
§ Bhoika
§ Bhojakheri
§ Bhojavadar
§ Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 19-guns (21-guns local)
§ Bhor in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Bhorole
§ Bichhrand Junior
§ Bichhrand Senior
§ Bihat in Madhya Pradesh
§ Bihora
§ Bija
§ Bijawar in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Bijna in Madhya Pradesh
§ Bikaner in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 17-guns (19-guns local)
§ Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Bilaud
§ Bilauda
§ Bilbari
§ Bildi
§ Bilkha in Saurashtra
§ Boad
§ Bodanones
§ Bolundra
§ Bonai in Orissa
§ Borkhera (Indore)
§ Borkhera (Malwa)
§ Boudh in Orissa
§ Bundi in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 17-guns
§ Cambay=Kambay in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Cannanore
§ Carnatic
§ Chachana
§ Chamardi
§ Chamba in Himachal Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Changbhakar in Madhya Pradesh
§ Charkha
§ Charkhari in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Chera
§ Chhaliar
§ Chhatarpur in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Chhota Barkhera
§ Chhota Udaipur=Chhota Udepur in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Chhuikadan in Madhya Pradesh
§ Chiktiabar
§ Chinchli Ghabad
§ Chiroda
§ Chitral Pakistani Frontier State
§ Chitravao
§ Chobari
§ Chok
§ Chorangla
§ Chotila
§ Chuda in Saurashtra
§ Chudesar
§ Cochin in Kerala - Hereditary salute of 17-guns
§ Cooch Behar in West Bengal - Hereditary salute of 13-guns
§ Coorg Political pensioner
§ Cutch =Kutch in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 17-guns (19-guns local)
§ Dabha
§ Dabr
§ Dadhalia
§ Dahida
§ Danta in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Daphlapur
§ Darbhanga
§ Daria Kheri
§ Darkoti in Himachal Pradesh
§ Darod
§ Daryabad
§ Dasada
§ Daspalla in Orissa
§ Datia in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Datva vassal state
§ Debhavati
§ Dedarda
§ Dedhrota in Bombay
§ Delath, a tributary of Bashahr, in Himachal Pradesh
§ Delhi (Mughal Emperor)
§ Deloli
§ Deodar in Gujarat
§ Derdi Janbai
§ Derol
§ Devalia
§ Devlia
§ Dewas Junior Branch in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Dewas Senior Branch in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Dhabla Dhir
§ Dhabla Ghosi
§ Dhamasia
§ Dhami
§ Dhamri in Himachal Pradesh
§ Dhaora Ghanjara
§ Dhar in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Dharampur in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns (11-guns personal)
§ Dharnauda
§ Dhenkanal in Orissa
§ Dhola
§ Dholarva
§ Dholpur in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 15-guns (17-guns personal)
§ Dhrangadhra -Halvad in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 13-guns
§ Dhrol in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Dhulatia
§ Dhurwai in Madhya Pradesh
§ Dir (Dhir) Pakistani Frontier State
§ Dodka
§ Drapha
§ Dudhpur
§ Dudhrej
§ Dugri
§ Dujana in Punjab (now in Haryana)
§ Dungapur/Dungarpur in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Faridkot in PEPSU - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Gabat
§ Gad Boriad
§ Gadhali
§ Gadhia
§ Gadhka
§ Gadhula
§ Gadvi
§ Gadwal vassal state
§ Gandhol
§ Gangpur in Orissa
§ Garamli Moti
§ Garamli Nahani
§ Garrauli in Madhya Pradesh
§ Gaurihar in Madhya Pradesh
§ Gavridad
§ Gedi
§ Ghodasar =? Ghodsar in Bombay
§ Gigarsaran
§ Gohad
§ Gondal in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Gopalpet vassal state
§ Gotardi
§ Gothda
§ Gundh in Himachal Pradesh
§ Gundiali
§ Gurgunta vassal state
§ Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 21-guns
§ Halvadin surendranagar (Gujarat)
§ Halaria
§ Hapa in Bombay
§ Harol
§ Hindol in Orissa
§ Hindur
§ Hirapur
§ Hunza Pakistani Frontier State
§ Hyderabad - Hereditary salute of 21-guns
§ Ichalkaranji vassal state
§ Idar in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Ilol in Bombay
§ Ilpura
§ Indore in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 19-guns (21-guns local)
§ Itria
§ Itvad
§ Jabria Bhil
§ Jafrabad in Saurashtra
§ Jafarabad and Janjira fusion of both states named
§ Jaipur in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 17-guns (19-guns local)
§ Jaisalmer in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Jakhan
§ Jalia Devani=Jaliadevani in Saurashtra
§ Jalia Kayaji
§ Jalia Manaji
§ Jambughoda or Jambuodha in Bombay
§ Jamkhandi in Bombay
§ Jammu in Jammu and Kashmir - Hereditary salute of 21-guns
§ Jamnia
§ Janjira in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 11-guns (13-guns local)
§ Jaora in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 13-guns
§ Jasdan in Saurashtra
§ Jashpur
§ Jashur in Madhya Pradesh
§ Jaso in Madhya Pradesh
§ Jath in Bombay
§ Jatprole vassal state
§ Jawalgiri vassal state
§ Jawasia
§ Jawhar in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Jesar
§ Jetpur in Saurashtra
§ Jhabua in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Jhalawar in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 13-guns
§ Jhalera
§ Jhamar
§ Jhamka
§ Jhampodar
§ Jhari Gharkadhi
§ Jhinyuvada
§ Jigni in Madhya Pradesh
§ Jiliya in Rajasthan [1]
§ Jind in PEPSU - Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns personal and local)
§ Jiral Kamsoli
§ Jobat in Madhya Pradesh
§ Jodhpur in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 17-guns (19-guns local)
§ Jubbal in Himachal Pradesh
§ Jumkha
§ Junagadh - Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns personal and local)
§ Junapadar
§ Kachchi Baroda
§ Kadana
§ Kagal Junior vassal state
§ Kagal Senior vassal state
§ Kahlur = Kehloor - former names of Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh
§ Kalahandi in Orissa - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Kalat in Pakistani Baluchistan
§ Kali Baori
§ Kalsia in PEPSU
§ Kalu Khera
§ Kamalpur (Bombay)
§ Kamalpur (Central India)
§ Kambay = Cambai in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Kambhala
§ Kamta Rajaula
§ Kanada
§ Kaner
§ Kangra-Lambagraon
§ Kanika
§ Kanjarda
§ Kanker
§ Kankrej
§ Kanksiali
§ Kanpur Ishwaria
§ Kanta Rajaulia in Madhya Pradesh
§ Kantharia
§ Kapshi vassal state
§ Kapurthala in PEPSU - Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns personal and local)
§ Karaudia
§ Karauli in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 17-guns
§ Kariana
§ Karmad
§ Karol
§ Kashmir in Jammu & K.
§ Kasla Pagina Muvada
§ Kassalpura
§ Kathaun
§ Kathiawar - also name of the large Gujarati peninsula, roughly corresponding to Saurashtra (divided into numerous minor (e)states)
§ Kathrota
§ Katodia
§ Katosan
§ Kawardha in Madhya Pradesh
§ Kayatha
§ Kehloor = Kahlur - former names of Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh
§ Keonjhar in Orissa
§ Keonthal in Himachal Pradesh
§ Kerwada
§ Kesria
§ Khadal in Bombay
§ Khairagarh in Madhya Pradesh
§ Khairpur in Pakistan
§ Khajuri
§ Khamblav
§ Khandia
§ Khaneti, a tributary of Bashahr
§ Khandpara in Orissa
§ Khandpara
§ Khaniadhana in Madhya Pradesh
§ Kharan in Pakistani Baluchistan
§ Kharsawan in Bihar
§ Kharsi
§ Khedawada
§ Kherali
§ Kherawara
§ Kherwasa
§ Kheri Rajpur
§ Khetri vassal state
§ Khiauda
§ Khijadia (Gohilwar)
§ Khilchipur in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Khirasra in Saurashtra
§ Khojankhera
§ Khudadad the state of Tippu Sultan - his heirs became Political Pensioner
§ Khyrim
§ Kiari see Madhan in Himachal Pradesh
§ Kirli
§ Kishangarh in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Kolara Political Pensioner
§ Kolhapur in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 19-guns
§ Koriya (Korea) in Madhya Pradesh
§ Kotah in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 17-guns (19-guns personal)
§ Kotda Nayani in Saurashtra
§ Kotda Pitha in Saurashtra
§ Kotda Sangani in Saurashtra
§ Kotharia in Saurashtra
§ Kothi in Madhya Pradesh
§ Kuba (not Quba in Armenia!)
§ Kumarsain in Himachal Pradesh =?Kumharsain
§ Kunihar in Himachal Pradesh
§ Kurandvad?Kurundvad Junior Branch
§ Kurandvad Senior Branch
§ Kurnool Political Pensioner
§ Kurwai in Madhya Pradesh
§ Kushalgarh
§ Kutch=Cooch in Saurashtra
§ Kuthar in Himachal Pradesh
§ Lakhapadar
§ Lakhtar in Saurashtra
§ Lalgarh
§ Laliyad
§ Landhora
§ Langrin
§ Las Bela in Pakistani Baluchistan
§ Lathi in Saurashtra
§ Lavej
§ Lawa in Rajasthan
§ Likhi
§ Limbda =? Limbdi in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Lodhika
§ Logasi in Madhya Pradesh
§ Loharu in Punjab (now in Haryana) - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Lugasi
§ Lunavada=Lunawanda in Bombay =? Lunawarda Lunawara - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Madhan = Kiari in Himachal Pradesh
§ Magodi in Bombay
§ Maguna in Bombay
§ Maharam
§ Mahlog =?Mahilog in Himachal Pradesh
§ Maihar in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Mahmudpura
§ Makrai in Madhya Pradesh
§ Makran in Pakistani Baluchistan
§ Maksudangarh
§ Malaudh one of the Phulkian princely States in Punjab
§ Malerkotla=Maler Kotla in PEPSU - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Malaisohmat
§ Malia = Maliya in Saurashtra
§ Malpur in Bombay
§ Manavadar
§ Mandholi in Rajasthan, a thikana under Torawati in Jaipur state.
§ Mandi in Himachal Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Mandva in Bombay =?Mandwa
§ Mangal in Himachal Pradesh
§ Mangam
§ Mangrol
§ Manipur in colonial Assam (now a separate constitutive state) - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Mansa
§ Maoang
§ Maosangram
§ Mariaw
§ Masulipatam Political Pensioner
§ Mathwar
§ Matra Timba
§ Mayurbhanj in Orissa - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Men
§ Mengani
§ Mevasa
§ Mevli
§ Mewar, or after its capital Mewar - The first and foremost of all states in British India, Hereditary salute of 19-guns (21-guns local), soon full 21-guns
§ Miohanpur in Bombay
§ Miraj Junior Branch in Bombay
§ Miraj Senior Branch in Bombay
§ Mirpur in Pakistan
§ Mohanpur
§ Moka Pagina Muvada
§ Monvel
§ Morchopna
§ Morvi in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Mota Barkhera
§ Mota Kotharna
§ Mowa
§ Mudhol in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Muhammadgarh in Madhya Pradesh
§ Muli in Saurashtra
§ Mulia Deri
§ Multhan
§ Munjpar
§ Murshidabad Political Pensioner- new seat of the former rulers of (Greater) Bengal
§ Mylliem
§ Mysore (modern Maisur) in Madras - Hereditary salute of 21-guns
§ Nabha in PEPSU - Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns local)
§ Nagar Pakistani Frontier State
§ Nagod - Hereditary salute of 9-guns =? Nagodh in Madhya Pradesh
§ Nagpur in Madhya Pradesh- Political Pensioner
§ Nahara
§ Naigawan Ribai
§ Nalagarh in PEPSU
§ =? Nalagarh in Himachal Pradesh
§ Nalia
§ Nandgaon in Madhya Pradesh
§ Narsinghgarh in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Narsinghpur in Orissa
§ Narukot
§ Narwar
§ Nashipur ?
§ Naswadi
§ Naugaon
§ Naulana
§ Navagarh
§ Nawanagar in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns local)
§ Nayagarh in Orissa
§ Nilgiri in Orissa
§ Nilvala
§ Nimkhera
§ Nobo Sohoh
§ Noghanvadar
§ Nongklao
§ Nongspung
§ Nongstoin
§ Orchha in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Oudh = Awadh Political Pensioner - ?salute
§ Pachegam
§ Pah
§ Pahara in Madhya Pradesh =?Pahra
§ Paigah vassal state
§ Pal
§ Palaj in Bombay
§ Palali
§ Palanpur in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 13-guns
§ Palasni
§ Palasvihir
§ Paldeo in Madhya Pradesh
§ Palitana in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Paliyad
§ Pal Lahara in Orissa =?Pal Lahera
§ Palsani
§ Panchvada
§ Pandu
§ Panna in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Pantalvadi
§ Panth Piploda
§ Paron
§ Partabgarh in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Patan or Torawati in Rajasthan, vassal state to Jaipur
§ Pataudi in Punjab (now in Haryana)
§ Patdi in Saurashtra
§ Pathari in Madhya Pradesh =?Patharia
§ Patiala in PEPSU - Hereditary salute of 17-guns (19-guns local)
§ Patna in Orissa - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Pethapur
§ Phaltan in Bombay
§ Phulera
§ Pimladevi
§ Pimpri
§ Piplia Sisodia
§ Piplianagar
§ Piploda in Madhya Pradesh
§ Poicha
§ Pol
§ Poonch vassal state
§ Porbandar in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 13-guns
§ Prempur in Bombay
§ Pudukottai in Madras - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Punadra
§ Punial Pakistani Frontier State
§ Punjab Political Pensioner - ?salute
§ Pundara in Bombay
§ Palvancha Biggest Principality in Telengana Region(Under Nizam)
§ Radhanpur in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Raghugarh
§ Rahrakhol
§ Raigarh in Madhya Pradesh
§ Rairakhol in Orissa
§ Rai Sankli
§ Rajgarh in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Rajpara (Gohilwar)
§ Rajpara (Halar)
§ Rajkot in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Rajpipla in Bomaby - Hereditary salute of 13-guns
§ Rajpur (Kathiawar) in Saurashtra?
§ Rajpur (Rewa Kantha) in Saurashtra?
§ Ramanka
§ Ramas
§ Rambrai
§ Ramdurg in Bombay
§ Ramgarh
§ Rampur in Uttar Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Rampura
§ Ranasan in Bombay
§ Randhia
§ Ranpur in Orissa
§ Ratanmal
§ Ratanpur Dhamanka
§ Ratesh a zaildar in Keonthal in Himachal Pradesh
§ Ratlam in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns local)
§ Rawin = Rawingarh, a tributary of Jubbal in Himachal Pradesh
§ Regan
§ Rewa=Rewah in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 17-guns
§ Rohisala
§ Rupal
§ Sachin - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Sada Kheri
§ Sahuka
§ Sailana in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Sakti in Madhya Pradesh
§ Samadhiali
§ Samla
§ Samode vassal state
§ Samthar in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Sanala
§ Sandur in Karnataka (was in Madras Presidency before 1-10-1953)
§ Sangli in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns (11-guns personal)
§ Sangri in Himachal Pradesh
§ Sanjeli in Bombay
§ Sanor
§ Sanosra
§ Sant in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Santalpur
§ Sarangarh in Madhya Pradesh
§ Sarila in Madhya Pradesh
§ Satanones
§ Sarangarh
§ Sarila
§ Satara Political Pensioner - cfr. the Peshwa's Maratha confederation
§ Sathamba in Bombay
§ Satlasna
§ Satodad Vavdi
§ Savantvadi=Savantwadi in Bombay - Hereditary salute of 9-guns (11-guns local)
§ Savanur in Bombay
§ Sayla in Saurashtra
§ Sejakpur
§ Seraikela=? Seraikhela in Bihar
§ Shahpur
§ Shahpura in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Shajaota
§ Shanor
§ Sheogarh
§ Sheopur-Baroda
§ Shevdivadar
§ Shivabara
§ Shorapur vassal state
§ SibaNo Salute
§ Sidki
§ Sihora
§ Sikkim (a Himalayan constitutive state since Indian annexation) - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Silana
§ Sind in Pakistan (khanate extinguished in 1843)
§ Sindhiapura
§ Singhana
§ Sirguja
§ Sirmur in Himachal Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Sirohi in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 15-guns
§ Sirsi (Gwalior)
§ Sirsi (Malwa)
§ Sitamau in Madhya Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Sohawal in Madhya Pradesh
§ Sonepur in Orissa - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Songad
§ Sonkhera & Sarwan
§ Sudamra
§ Sudasna in Bombay
§ Suigam
§ Suket in Himachal Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Sundem
§ Sunth
§ Surat Political Pensioner
§ Surgana in Bombay
§ Surguja in Madhya Pradesh
§ Sutalia
§ Swat Pakistani Frontier State
§ [Sidhowal{India}in Punjab]
§ Srikalahasti under Madras Presidency-sold Area of Madras to East India Company
§ Tajpuri in Bombay
§ Tal
§ Talegaon Dabhade
§ Talcher in Orissa
§ Talsana
§ Tanawal state (see Amb) Pakistani Frontier state
§ Tanjore Political Pensioner
§ Tappa
§ Taraon in Madhya Pradesh
§ Tavi
§ Tehri Garhwal in Uttar Pradesh - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Tejpura
§ Tervada
§ Thana Devli
§ Tharad & Morwara
§ Tharoch in Himachal Pradesh
§ Tigiria? Tigria in Orissa
§ Timba
§ Toda Todi
§ Tonk in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 17-guns
§ Torgal vassal state
§ Tori Fatehpur in Madhya Pradesh
§ Travancore in Kerala - Hereditary salute of 19-guns
§ Tripura in colonial Assam (now a separate state) - Hereditary salute of 13-guns
§ Uchad
§ Udaipur, Chhattisgarh
§ Udaipur capital of Mewar in Rajasthan - Hereditary salute of 19-guns (21-guns local), soon full 21-guns
§ Umeta In Gujurat of Thakore Jagdevsinhji Ramsinhji Padhiar
§ Umri (Bombay)
§ Umri (Central India)
§ Uni
§ Untdi
§ Upawara
§ Vadal
§ Vadali
§ Vadia in Saurashtra
§ Vadod (Gohilwar)
§ Vadod (Jhalawar)
§ Vaghvadi
§ Vajiria
§ Vakhatpur in Bombay =?Vakhtapur
§ Vallabhpur
§ Vala in Saurashtra
§ Valasna in Bombay
§ Vana
§ Vanala
§ Vanghdhra
§ Vanod in Saurashtra
§ Varagam
§ Varnol Mal
§ Varnoli Moti
§ Varnoli Nani
§ Varsoda in Bombay
§ Vasan Sewada
§ Vasan Virpur
§ Vasna in Bombay
§ Veja-no-ness
§ Vekaria
§ Vichhavad
§ Vijanones
§ Vijayanagar in Bombay
§ Virampura
§ Virpur in Saurashtra
§ Virsora
§ Virvao
§ Vishalgarh vassal state
§ Vithalgarh
§ Vora
§ Wadagam
§ Wadi
§ Wai
§ Wadhwan in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 9-guns
§ Wadi jagir in Bombay
§ Wanapurthy vassal state
§ Wankaner in Saurashtra - Hereditary salute of 11-guns
§ Wao in Bombay
§ Warahi
§ Wasna
§ Zainabad or Zainbad
[edit]Further reading
§ The Relationship Between the Indian Princely States and the Indian Central Government, 1921-1933, by Harry Dunseth Wood. Published by University of Chicago, 1951.
§ The Paramount Power and the Princely States of India, 1858-1881, by Ajit K. Neogy. Published by K. P. Bagchi, 1974.
§ Rajahs and Prajas: An Indian Princely State, Then and Now, by S. Devadas Pillai. Published by Popular Prakashan, 1976.
§ Princely States and the Paramount Power, 1858-1876: A Study on the Nature of Political Relationship Between the British Government and the Indian State, by Mihir Kumar Ray. Rajesh Publications, 1981.
§ Documents and Speeches on the Indian Princely States, by Adrian Sever. Published by B.R. Pub. Corp., 1985.
§ The Late Pre-colonial Background to the Indian Princely States, by Richard B Barnett. Published by Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Punjab, 1988.
§ Indian Princely Medals: A Record of the Orders, Decorations, and Medals of the Indian Princely States, by Tony McClenaghan. Published by Spantech & Lancer, 1996. ISBN 1897829191.
§ British Policy Towards Princely States of India: Seminar Entitled "British Policy Towards North Indian Princely States" : Selected Papers, by R P Vyas. Published by Rajasthan-Vidya Prakashan, 1992.
§ The Princely States of India: A Chronological Checklist of Their Rulers, by David P. Henige. Published by Borgo Press, 1997. ISBN 0893703257.
§ Constitutional Development in the Indian Princely States, by Ranjana Kaul. Published by UBS Publishers Distributors, 1998. ISBN 8125905111.
§ The Maharaja & the Princely States of India, by Sharada Dwivedi. Published by Lustre Press, 1999. ISBN 8174360816.
§ Illustrated Encyclopaedia & Who's who of Princely States in Indian Sub-continent, by J. C. Dua. Published by Kaveri Books, 2000. ISBN 8174790365.
§ The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled or Decorated, of the Indian Empire, by Sir Roper Lethbridge. Adamant Media Corporation, 2001. ISBN 1402193289.
§ True Tales of British India & the Princely States: & The Princely States, by Michael Wise. Published by In Print, 1993. ISBN 1873047061.
§ Princely States of India: A Guide to Chronology and Rulers, by David P. Henige. Published by Orchid Press, 2006. ISBN 9745240494.
§ India's Princely States: People, Princes and Colonialism, by Waltraud Ernst, Biswamoy Pati. Published by Routledge, 2007. ISBN 0415415411.


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